A. Bellini, G. Pertot, V. Pracchi
RESTAURO E RESTAURATORI ALL’ORATORIO DI SANTO STEFANO A LENTATE SUL SEVESO (MI): INDAGINI E CONSIDERAZIONI IN MARGINE A UN PROSSIMO INTERVENTO DI CONSERVAZIONE.
The Oratorio was built in sixteenth century by Stefano Porro with a decorative apparatus completely composed by frescoes. Then it was restored by Landriani (nineteenth century) and by Pellicioli (1935-36 and 1952). In the 1980s white patina was observed on some parts of the inner walls. The aim of this paper is to present an outline of the main studies made in the last years about characterisation of materials, degenerating trend, requested conservation works.
Key Words: conservation, fresco work, restoration, patina
LA „MAROUFLAGE“. FORTUNA STORICA ITALIANA ED EUROPEA E PROBLEMI DEL RESTAURO.
Ricerche recenti hanno rivelato l’introduzione di pitture ad olio su tela incollata sul muro in Italia nel tardo cinquecento (p.e. opere di Antonio Viviani, Francesco Vanni). Questa novità diffondeva in Europa via contatti politici-culturali in Austria (Innsbruck: Teofilo Polack 1626, Dürnkrut 1633) ed in Francia, dove fioriva fino al tardo ottocento. La prima descrizione della tecnica è francese, scritta dal Abbate Pernety 1757, che conosce tre tipi della colla dei pittori, nominata “maroufle”: colla forte, colori grassi ad olio e misture di pece e cera.
Problemi di conservazione vengono di più da
difetti del costruito (statica, umidità). Restauri
U.Baldini, C.Baracchini, I.Bonaduce, A. Caleca, G. Capponi, M.P.Colombini, E. Luppichini, M. Spampinato
UNA STORIA COMPLICATA: GLI AFFRESCHI DEL CAMPOSANTO MONUMENTALE DI PISA.
In the Camposanto Monumentale, the 13th century cemetery located alongside the Leaning Tower, a gigantic medieval cycle of frescoes caused Pisa to become a privileged destination for travellers, artists and men of letters since the 17th century. Two centuries of studies and attempts to prevent the decaying frescoes to disappear were rendered vain, during the World War II, by the bomb which started a big fire in the Cemetery. Immediately detached, glued on canvases with calcium caseate and fixed to an eternit support, by 1980 the frescoes showed signs of severe deterioration. Right away a long diagnostic process began, wich reconstrued the execution techniques, retraced the history of previous restorations, identified the presence of salts, gypsum, degraded casein as major factors of risk and confirmed the necessity of a prompt restoration.
The paper outlines this process. More specifically it presents two main problems which had recently to be faced --the impermeability of the surface which hampered the restoration procedure, and the presence of a resistant layer over the original colour-- as well as the diagnostic approach adopted, namely, a multi-disciplinary integrated approach, based on archival data, experimental observation, stratigraphical and chemical analyses (Fourier Infrared spectroscopy and Pyrolysis silylation –gas chromatography –mass spectrometry), wich helped understand and solve some of the problems caused by previous treatments.
Key words: Detached frescoes, Camposanto Monumentale Pisa, FT-IR, Py-GC-MS, petrographical analysis
IL CICLO GIOTTESCO NELLA CAPPELLA DELLA MADDALENA AL MUSEO NAZIONALE DEL BARGELLO DI FIRENZE: ASPETTI STORICO-ARTISTICI, TECNICHE DI ESECUZIONE, STATO DI CONSERVAZIONE, INTERVENTO DI RESTAURO E INNOVAZIONI METODOLOGICHE.
The conservation work of these famous wall paintings, in the chapel is located the oldest portrait of Dante, it has given the chance to investigate the various causes of decay and the complex technique of execution. This work has allowed the recovery of the original pictorial surface and has added more informations on the art of Giotto’s workshop. Several elements have concurred to the decay of the pictorial cycle: the harmful effect of the lime that has been covering the paintings for almost 300 years, centuries of negligence, water infiltrations, the “discialbo” operations made in the restauration of the XIX centuries after its sensational discovery. Also the “secco” technique has contributed to the degradation of the paintings. These elements show the extraordinary chromatic richness of these walls today almost lost. The many losses of the pictorial surface make it difficult the attribution to Giotto, on a stylistic base. The importance of the commission, the date (1332-1337) and the architectural structure of the chapel let us think at the Maestro as a planner of the whole project. It is possible to recognize different artists’ hands, but these paintings could be considered a real evidence of the late Giotto’s style.
KEY-WORD Giotto, Dante, Bargello
C. Danti, A. Felici
I PARTE - IL CICLO GIOTTESCO NELLA CAPPELLA DELLA MADDALENA AL MUSEO NAZIONALE DEL BARGELLO DI FIRENZE: ASPETTI STORICO-ARTISTICI E VICENDE CONSERVATIVE.
P. I. Mariotti
II PARTE - LE TECNICHE DI ESECUZIONE E LO STATO DI CONSERVAZIONE DEL CICLO GIOTTESCO NELLA CAPPELLA DELLA MADDALENA AL MUSEO NAZIONALE DEL BARGELLO DI FIRENZE.
F. Bandini, P. I. Mariotti
III PARTE- L’INTERVENTO CONSERVATIVO E LA MOTIVAZIONE DELLE SCELTE NEL RESTAURO DEL CICLO GIOTTESCO NELLA CAPPELLA DELLA MADDALENA AL MUSEO NAZIONALE DEL BARGELLO DI FIRENZE.
G.C. Lanterna, C. Lalli, M. Rizzi, I. Tosini
IV PARTE - ASPETTI DIAGNOSTICI E INNOVAZIONI METODOLOGICHE NEL RESTAURO DEL CICLO GIOTTESCO NELLA CAPPELLA DELLA MADDALENA AL MUSEO NAZIONALE DEL BARGELLO.
CAVALCASELLE, VALENTINIS ED IL RESTAURO DEGLI AFFRESCHI DI S. ANTONIO ABATE A SAN DANIELE DEL FRIULI.
ABSTRACT: The restoration of the fresco paintings made by Pellegrino da San Daniele in the church of S. Antonio Abate in S. Daniele del Friuli is a very interesting example of this kind of work in the second half of the XIX century because of the conservative approach imposed by Giovan Battista Cavalcaselle to the restorer Antonio Bertolli and the documentation and control of the work by Giuseppe Uberto Valentinis, with accurate drawings and descriptions. Also the works made in order to prevent the presence of damp in the walls demonstrate the high scientific and technical level of the practitioners in that period.
KEY-WORD: Bertolli, Cavalcaselle, Frescoes restoration, Pellegrino da San Daniele, San Daniele del Friuli, Valentinis.
LA PITTURA MURALE CON LEGANTI OLEOSI IN ITALIA NEL SETTECENTO E NEL PRIMO OTTOCENTO.
The oil wall painting was employed very much in the 18th and in the early 19th in several Italian districts and also in England, French and Austria by some Italian artists wich worked there.
Data of the sources are examinated and some interesting pictorial cycles just restored are presented here: it will be made clear the conservation problems of the oil technique on the wall.
KEY-WORD: oil painting, wall painting, Italy, conservation
L. Dei, B. Radicati, B. Salvadori
SPERIMENTAZIONE DI UN CONSOLIDANTE A BASE DI IDROSSIDO DI CALCIO NANOFASICO SUGLI AFFRESCHI DELLA CAPPELLA DEL PODESTÀ AL MUSEO DEL BARGELLO DI FIRENZE: ASPETTI CHIMICO-FISICI E PROVE DI COLORE.
In the frame of a trilateral cooperation among the Chemistry Department and the CSGI Consortium of the University of Florence, the Institute of Applied Physics of the National Council of Researches ‘Nello Carrara’ and the Opificio delle Pietre Dure of Florence, an experimentation has been realized aimed to verify the applicative potentialities of an innovative consolidation methodology developed at the CSGI Laboratories, based on the use of calcium hydroxide (slaked lime) nanoparticles dispersed in iso-propyl alcohol. The present contribution reports the results achieved in relationship to the synthesis and characterisation of the Ca(OH)2 nanoparticles, to the physicochemical aspects associated with the application of the above mentioned dispersions on the wall painting surfaces of the Cappella del Podestà at the Museo del Bargello in Florence (Italy) and to the colour tests carried out on the regions selected for the experimentation, with particular emphasis for the comparison with the Ferroni-Dini technique that involves the use of barium hydroxide as consolidating agent.
Keywords: wall paintings consolidation, slaked lime nanoparticles, colour tests.
M. Camaiti, C. Colombo, M. Matteini, M. Realini
GRAFFITI E PITTURE MURALI NELLE EX CARCERI DI PALAZZO CHIARAMONTE A PALERMO. STUDIO SUI MATERIALI E SULLE TECNICHE.
Palazzo Chiaramonte in Palermo, built about in 1320 by Manfredi I Chiaramonte, had have a very complex story. During the XVII and XVIII century, in fact, the building became the seat of the Inquisition Tribunal and cells and torture rooms were built inside.
At present it is known as Palazzo Steri and it is the seat of the offices of the University of Palermo.
At the beginning of the 1900, during repairing works, remains of polychrome mural paintings, graffiti and inscriptions were came into view on the walls of three of the six cells located at the first floor. These remains have not an artistic value but they are an enormous historic evidence of a period that has deeply marked the history of Sicily and its inhabitants.
Aim of this work is the individuation and characterization of the stratigraphic phases realized in different times as a successions of scialbi and painting layers. Actually, only two of the three painted cells have been taken in consideration, where red and black colour have been used for drawing and inscriptions on the walls. The characterization of pigments, binders and scialbi has been carried out by optic and electronic microscopy and medium infrared spectroscopy. In many cases the results have allowed to define a temporal sequence of drawing and inscription events.
KEY-WORDS: mural painting, drawing, inscription, pigment, painting technique, Palazzo Steri, Inquisition.
A. M. Ardovino
TECNICA PITTORICA ROMANA REPUBBLICANA ALLA LUCE DEGLI SCAVI RECENTI DEL FORO DI BRESCIA.
The paintings of Republican shrine under the “Capitolium” in Brescia, dated to the beginning of the I sec. d.C., were covered in Flavian age. They allow to reach considerable technical comments thanks to a remarkable effort of various science like classical philology, chemistry and microbiology hence going outside the usual parameter of petrographic analyses employed in wall painting studies.
First bees wax, emulsified with olive oil, is used in the superficial finishing. On the contrary clays, particularly kaolin, are not of use to final finishing, but they are joined to calcium carbonate to compose the surface to paint. Sugary traces rouses suspicion that pigments were dealed with gum-arabic or other similar resins.
Other painting, intended to place in walls of a damp room, is painted on clay, and lime-water seems the medium of the colours.
This is a considerable renovation of usual and mannered readings of Pliny the Elder and Vitruvius.
KEY-WORD: wax, clay, olive oil, kaolin, gum-arabic
L. Bigazzi, F. Piqué, S. Hluvko, C. Gnoni, B. Salvadori
L'INTEGRAZIONE TRA RICERCA STORICO-ARTISTICA, SCIENZA E RESTAURO: IL CASO DELLE PITTURE MURALI DI PALAZZO DATINI A PRATO.
The Datini Palace in Prato, Italy, is a rare example of a 14th century residence retaining its original architecture and decorations. Today it houses the historical archive of its owner, the famous medieval merchant Francesco di Marco Datini. The wall painting decorations of one of the rooms is undergoing conservation and this paper illustrates the interdisciplinary - historical, scientific and material - research carried out in support of the development of the intervention.
The first step has been the reconstruction of the physical history of the room using a combination of physical evidences visible on site and archival, bibliographical and iconographical research. In the Datini’s archive it was possible to read and re-evaluate the original letters written by the 14th century painters, describing in detail for Datini the portions of his residence painted by them. The scientific investigations were developed in support of the intervention and were carried out starting with non-invasive techniques, such as surface examination and technical photography, followed by invasive methods. The identification of the principal deterioration problems was done by combining: the examination of the condition of the murals, the reconstructed physical history, and the results of the scientific investigations. An interesting discovery is the presence of painted paper used over the lime-based plaster as support of the four portraits in the vault of this room.
Keywords: wall paintings, murals, salts, paper, Francecsco di Marco Datini
R. De Angelis, J. Cassar, I. Kakoulli
DEGRADO E PROBLEMATICHE CONSERVATIVE DI UN DIPINTO AD OLIO SU PIETRA A MALTA.
this article provides a summary of the diagnostic study undertaken on an oil-based painting on a dome of a church in Malta. Painted in 1903 and extensively restored in 1963, this mural is now found to be in an appalling condition. To investigate causes and processes of deterioration, a multidisciplinary approach was followed. This included historical research, non-invasive examination, sampling and analysis, and environmental monitoring. Soluble salts, mainly gypsum and minor amounts of halite, were found to be the main causes of deterioration. Salt crystallization cycles were triggered by recurrent and prolonged rainwater infiltrations, whilst solar radiation may have played a role by increasing the number of crystallization cycles. Deterioration was also favoured by intrinsic factors. Oil-based paintings applied to porous materials, in this case a very porous limestone, create a barrier to the passage of water, and favour the formation of an interface between the wall and the paint layer, under which salts may crystallize. In this case, the artist applied his painted strata over pre-existing paint layers making the painting’s structure even more prone to delamination. The limestone over which the painting was applied was found of bad quality and susceptible to salt decay. The difficult issues in relation to the preservation of this painting are referred to and are open for discussion.
KEYWORDS: oil painting; salts; gypsum; limestone; Globigerina Limestone; wall painting; Malta.
L. Campanella, C. Coluzza, V. Mambro, P. Postorino, M. Tomassetti
CARATTERIZZAZIONE CON METODI STRUMENTALI DI PIGMENTI NERI UTILIZZATI NELLE PITTURE MURARIE AD AFFRESCO.
The characterization was made using instrumental methods of various types of commercial black pigments.
Micro Raman, thermogravimetry, reflectance spectroscopy technique and tristimulus colorimetry were used.
Lastly reflectance spectra allowed to recognize the type of black pigments used to realise the frescoes of the “Studiolo di Augusto” (Palatine, 30 b.C.) to be identified.
KEY WORDS: Black pigments, frescoes, caratterizzation, instrumental methods.
I. Bonaduce, A. Andreotti, U. Casellato, M.P. Colombini, E. Fiorin, G. Lanterna, F. Modugno, P.A. Vigato
DIAGNOSTICA MEDIANTE METODOLOGIE INTEGRATE DEL CICLO PITTORICO “STORIE DI TEODOLINDA” NELLA CAPPELLA DI TEODOLINDA DEL DUOMO DI MONZA.
The pictorial cycle “Teodelinda’s Tales” at Monza Cathedral, painted by
Zavattari and his sons in
The physico-chemical investigations allowed to identify the nature and sometimes the provenance of the employed materials and some decay markers, particularly useful to understand and describe the cycle realised by the authors and the modifications suffered along the centuries.
KEY-WORDS: painting techniques, mural paintings, micro FT-IR spectroscopy, SEM-EDS,GC/MS and Py-HMDS/GC/MS
M. Seracini, G. Cruciani Fabozzi, L. Marrani, M.G. Pancani, P.R. Faggioni, E. Pecchioni
INDAGINI SCIENTIFICHE SUGLI APPARATI DECORATIVI E SULLE FASI EDILIZIE DI DUE MONUMENTI FIORENTINI IN VISTA DEL LORO RESTAURO: METODOLOGIE E RISULTATI.
Prior to the restoration of the Guadagni Strozzi Sacrati Palace and the Church of Battilani, diagnostic examinations were carried out on the wall paintings and internal decorations. The methodologies used to determine the painting techniques and state of conservation of the decorated surfaces are explained, together with an account of the anamnesis of both buildings. The use of scientific investigations in identifying previous restoration work and in ascertaining the existence of hidden paintings are also described.In both cases, the thermographic examinations revealed the nature of the building materials and the structure of the walls hidden beneath the plaster layer. Thermal discontinuities, indicative of active pathologies associated with decay processes on the surfaces of the walls, were documented. Due to the excessive thickness of the whitewashings in the former Church of Battilani, which hindered the infrared reflectography examination, the search for traces of underlying mural paintings was inconclusive. Cleaning tests were, therefore, performed on several areas of the church walls. In addition to presenting the results of the scientific investigations carried out on these two case studies, the importance of adapting a methodology which combines the use of diagnostic imaging and analytical diagnostics are considered.
KEY-WORDS: Decorazione pittorica, struttura muraria, conservazione, restauro, diagnostica per immagini, diagnostica analitica.
S. Serrão, S. Bracci, P. Tiano, M. Matteini
STUDIO DELL’EFFICIACIA E DELLA COMPATIBILITÀ DI UN TRATTAMENTO PROTETTIVO A BASE DI OSSALATO D’AMMONIO SU AFFRESCO.
The objective of the present study is the evaluation of the efficacy and the compatibility of a protective treatment based on ammonium oxalate solution in relation towards historical wall paintings’ pigments.
It consisted in the preparation of a fresco sample in laboratory with two identical painted areas, one of which was treated with the protective treatment and the other left untouched. The sample was prepared so to reproduce an original fresco as close as possible, being thus representative of the alterations occurring in real wall paintings. It was prepared according to historical fresco and tempera techniques, using traditional materials, and its carbonation was accelerated inside a CO2 chamber. The ammonium oxalate treatment was then applied and pigments’ alterations analysed.
The behaviour of the two areas were assessed through several techniques both non-destructive and micro-destructive such as colorimetry, Fiber optic reflectance spectroscopy (FORS), Fourier transform Infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR), X-rays diffraction (XRD), observation of cross-sections and evaluation of water absorption changes (contact sponge test). All these tests were performed before and after the treatment and on the untreated area of the fresco sample. Physical and chemical reactions of the pigments to the treatment were assessed on the wall painting sample prepared in laboratory.
The treatment has been proved to be not compatible in the presence of malachite and azurite pigments. The treatment is compatible for areas painted with Whitewash, Lead White, Siena Earth, Naples yellow, Red Ochre and Vine Black.
KEY-WORD: mural paintings, frescoes, pigments, protection treatment, ammonium oxalate
M. Bonelli, C. Cacace, G. Capponi, F. Fumelli, B. Provinciali, A.M. Marinelli, P. Santopadre
LA CAPPELLA SERRA NELLA CHIESA DI N.S. DEL SACRO CUORE GIA SAN GIACOMO DEGLI SPAGNUOLI A ROMA: PROBLEMI DI INTERAZIONE TRA PITTURA MURALE – SUPPORTO – AMBIENTE.
Object of this written is the study and restoration of paintings of the Chapel of S. Giacomo degli Spagnuoli, work of the painter Pellegrino Munari in the church of Nostra Signora del Sacro Cuore, already known as San Giacomo degli Spagnuoli,. The paintings were realized between the 1517, during the roman stay of the painter who was among the collaborators of Raffaello in the Logge Vaticane. The paintings, interested in serious manifestations of decay, with problems related at humidity’s phenomenology as rising dump, have been object, since 1997, of chemical and physical researches which have carried out the choice to realize the mechanical barrier of the masonry in the year 2001. Restoration has been carried by careful methodological choices in according with the principle of minimal intervention.
KEY WORD: humidity, rising dump, salts, mechanical barrier, pigments alteration.
G. Suardi, G. Cruciani Fabozzi
IL RESTAURO DELLE PITTURE MURALI DEL SANTUARIO DI S. MARIA DEL LAVELLO A CALOLZIOCORTE (LC): METODOLOGIA DI INTERVENTO E NUOVE ACQUISIZIONI.
The interior decorations of the Sanctuary showed spread damage, alterations and partial losses of the pictorial layers, due to humidity, damp and restoration applied in the last two centuries. In particular, the frescoes of the apse chapels were covered by whitewashing, and the appearance of the northern chapel was disfigured by bricks walling up and ordinary repainting.
The restoration has concurred to re-establish the appearance and the original brightness of the liturgical environment, by the gradual removal of the layers which were overlapped to the decorated surfaces and the ancient plasters of the three chapels, thanks to a wise integration between the architectonic elements and the pictorial apparatus. Furthermore, some evidences have contributed to clear the historical evolution of the building, because of the last archaeological excavations, which have brought to light the structures of the settlement. All the phases of the intervention were documented by surveys and technical documents. Beyond their philological properness and quality, the intervention results demonstrate the substantial connection between the preliminary studies and the operative phases, the architecture restoration and the restoration of the decorated surfaces.
KEY-WORD: Pictorial decoration, architectonic structure, conservation, restoration
LA CONSERVAZIONE DELLE PITTURE MURALI OLTRALPE. DIFFICILI ESPERIENZE ED EREDITÀ DAL PASSATO COME SFIDA PER LA PRASSI DEL VENTUNESIMO SECOLO: IL RI-RESTAURO INTESO COME “MINIMO INTERVENTO”
The german history of wall painting`s conservation is reflected in a representative way by the rich medieval patrimony of Saxony-Anhalt. Their appearance is heavily determined by the methods and materials used at the time of their encovering, which today needs a critical evaluation. As a part of the history of the object these interventions are respected and deserve to be preserved. Fundamental theoretical and practical approaches have been developed by curators, conservators and restorers collaborating with the industry, natural scientists and international partners during the twentieth century. Today the problem and the need to restore the restorations of the past is percepted also in a dramatic way. Immediately after the german riunification the elevated number of wall paintings treated with synthetic resins in Saxony-Anhalt haven`t been percepted yet as a problem. Today the lability of their state of conservation is becoming not only a financial but also a technical problem. Concepts of preventive conservation, as the reduction of polymer films and the stabilisation of the climate, are elaborated and presented here by the example of the conservation works on the paintings in the crypt of the monastery church in Quedlinburg, Saxony-Anhalt.
Keywords: wall paintings conservation / history of restoration / binding medias / fixatives / techniques of art / historical conservation techniques / restoration theory
LA CONSERVAZIONE DELLE PITTURE MURALI NELLA CRIPTA DI SAN SERVATII A QUEDLINBURG.
The crypt at the dome of S.Servatii at Quedlinburg, is known apart of the tomb of the emperor Henry I a well known cycle of wall paintings of the 12th century.
This paintings represents one of the largest painting cycles of the period in Germany, covering an area of more than 120 m².
The condition of the paintings is very inhomogeneous, largely reduced to the preparation layer.
It has been lime washed for around 350 years. After their uncovering they have been conserved in their reduced surface. Its conservation history represents significantly the situation in the old Eastern Germany. Casein and Gypsum in the thirties, polymers in the sixties have guaranteed the survival, but reveals consistent problems for the actual conservation work.
For these problems the crypt has been closed to the public, and apart from stabilising the climatic situation research for the understanding of the object and its degradation dynamics has been executed in the last five years. Conservation methodologies regarding the extraction of aged polymers and introducing mineral consolidation techniques been developed and experienced and will be the future base for a continues maintenance program,. That will allow a reopening of the crypt to the public.
KEY-WORD: polymers, barium, inorganic consolidant, extraction of polymers, wall paintings, 12th century, sulfates,
F. Bevilacqua, R. Fabbri, A. Casoli, D. Pinna
LA PITTURA AD OLIO SU INTONACO, ESEMPI FERRARESI: LEONARDO DA BRESCIA, IPPOLITO SCARSELLA, CARLO BONONI. STUDI, INDAGINI, RESTAURI.
Oil as binding medium for wall paintings was widely used in XVI century because the high colour density and the depth of tone which characterized the wall paintings of this period are more easily obtained by a wall painting in oil technique rather than by the traditional “buon fresco”. In Ferrara there are some interesting examples of the use of this technique, dating from second half of Cinquecento to first Seicento. So Leonardo da Brescia executed a wall painting in oil in the Camerino dei Baccanali, Castello Estense. The Vergine Annunciata, fragment of a wall painting in oil by Ippolito Scarsella, is now located in the Palazzo Arcivescovile. And finally the Glorification in the Name of God in the church of Santa Maria in Vado by Carlo Bononi is the wider existing example in Ferrara. The recent restorations of these paintings allowed to study this particular technique: the archives researches as well as the analytical study of pigments and binding media gave further interesting results.
KEY WORDS Oil, binding media, wall paintings, analytical techniques, Ferrara, XVI century.
A. Rava, E. Filippi
L’AUSILIO DELLA FOTOGRAMMETRIA DIGITALE COME STRUMENTO PER LA LETTURA E L’ANALISI IN CHIAVE INTERPRETATIVA DELL’ ARCHITETTURA DIPINTA. IL CASO DEL RESTAURO ALL’OPERA QUADRATURISTICA NEL SANTUARIO DELLA BEATA VERGINE DELLA CONSOLATA DI TORINO.
The paper describes the operations of digital photogrammetric drawing of the central dome of “Santuario della Consolata” in Turin, decorated with frescoes of XVIII° century.
The quadraturistic frescoes were restored by the author in the year 2000 with the direction of the Superintendences, and a lot of important historic material has been gathered to support the detailed news about original technique of execution.
The work made in 1740 was painted from two important artists, Giovanni Battista Alberoni e Giovanni Battista Crosato with the direction of Giuseppe Galli Bibiena, one of the most important theatrical and scenographic worker of the XVIII° century.
The intervention of drawing was focused on the representation of a part of the dome with new instrumentations and methods like the tridimensional ortophotography and the use of stereophotopaper for the renderings.
KEY-WORDS: quadraturismo, rilevamento fotogrammetrico, restauro, tutela, patrimonio artistico
F. Fratini, L. Pecchioli, S. Cosma, M.C. François
LE PITTURE MURALI DELLA CHIESA DI SANTA FELICITA A FIRENZE: INTERVENTI DI RESTAURO A CONFRONTO.
the Church of Santa Felicita in Florence, the old Chapter Hall represents one
of the few rooms which survived to the suppression of the old Benedictine monastery.
This chapel still hosts in their original position the XIV century frescos by
Niccolò di Pietro Gerini representing The Crucifixion and Christ and the seven
Virtues. In the XVII century part of the old frescos were removed because of
their bad condition of conservation and were substituted with two
"tempera" paintings by Cosimo Ulivelli and Agnolo Gori representing
Histories of Christ and Saints. In the XIX century, in occasion of renewing
interventions, the "tempera" paintings were covered by "scialbo".
Finally we come to the present time: in 1982-83 the scialbo was removed and in
At present, five years later, localised detachments of the plaster from the support wall can be evidenced together with new fissuring and efflorescences in the lower portion of the wall. Most of these problems are related to the presence of humidity within the masonry which amount was not sufficiently considered in the last intervention hence compromising an apparently well conducted restoration.
Key words: scialbo, humidity
S. Bianchin, U. Casellato, M. Favaro, P.A. Vigato, G. Botticelli
STATO DI CONSERVAZIONE E PROGETTO DI RESTAURO DEGLI AFFRESCHI DI QUSAYR AMRA, AMMAN – GIORDANIA.
The state of conservation of the mural paintings at Qusayr Amra was investigated by means of integrated physico-chemical measurements, particularly optical and scanning electron microscopy, -infrared spectroscopy, mass spectrometry and X-ray powder diffraction.
The frescoes appear severely damaged also owing to the presence of relevant amounts of different salts. These caused significant detachments of the pictorial layers.
The materials used in the paintings layer, in the preparation layer and in the wall plaster were characterized in order to clarify the pictorial technique. Furthermore, the nature and the degree of degradation of these materials were studied. Finally the materials employed in previous interventions were identified. These results allow to design the conservative intervention and maintenance.
Key-word: mural painting, state of conservation, salts formation, consolidants, binders.
P. Ropret, P. Bukovec
CHEMICAL CLEANING OF QUAGLIOS’ MURAL PAINTING IN THE CATHEDRAL OF SAINT NICHOLAS IN LJUBLJANA.
Due to significant age – induced darkening it was decided to chemically clean the Quaglios’ mural painting in the cathedral of Saint Nicholas in Ljubljana. Before the cleaning, the actual status of colour layers was established by means of x-ray diffraction, SEM / EDS and FTIR microscopy. The analyses showed a gradual transformation of calcium carbonate into calcium sulphate from the surface into the interior of colour layers. On some surfaces, the transformation even penetrated into the plaster beneath the colour layers. We also determined the palette of pigments in the original and later restoration procedures, and identified the casein layer on the surface of fresco. In the darkened lips and cheeks we identified the transformation of red cinnabar (-HgS) into its black phase metacinnabar (’-HgS).
Selecting chemical cleaning as the restoration procedure we expected to achieve two effects: to transform the calcium sulphate back into calcium carbonate and to remove the casein layer from the surface of fresco. For this purpose the best reagents were found to be (NH4)2CO3 and NH4HCO3 while the best absorbers were cellulose pulp and a combination of cellulose pulp and silicate absorber. The optimal time of application was dependent on the depth of the transformed calcium sulphate and could exceed two or more hours on the most effected areas.
KEYWORDS: chemical cleaning of mural paintings, calcium carbonate transformations, artists’ pigments, casein
L. Dei, B. Salvadori, E. Arlango, F. Pietropoli, C. Scardellato
GLI AFFRESCHI DEL XIII E XIV SECOLO NELLA CRIPTA DI SAN ZENO A VERONA: LA SPERIMENTAZIONE DELLA NANOCALCE DISPERSA IN ALCOL ISO-PROPILICO DURANTE L’INTERVENTO CONSERVATIVO.
In the frame of a cooperation between the CSGI Consortium of the University of Florence and the Soprintendenza per il Patrimonio Storico Artistico ed Etnoantropologico per le Province di Verona Vicenza e Rovigo an experimentation has been realized aimed to the consolidation of the XIII and XIV century wall paintings in the San Zeno Crypt in Verona (Italy). To arrest the powdering and lifting of the pictorial layers, calcium hydroxide nanocrystals have been used as fresh, new compatible binder, avoiding the other possible consolidation choice, i.e. the use of polymeric resins. The slaked lime nanoparticles have been synthesized and characterised at the CSGI Consortium in Florence and several dispersions of these particles in iso-propyl alcohol, at various concentration of the binder, have been employed to consolidate the whole painted surfaces of the Crypt with satisfying results, keeping the inorganic nature of the materials constituting the work of art, i.e. respecting the rule of physicochemical compatibility.
Keywords: wall paintings consolidation, slaked lime nanoparticles, mediaeval frescoes.
A. Kriznar, P. J. Sánchez-Soto, A. Ruíz Conde
MEDIEVAL WALL PAINTING IN SLOVENIA – INTERDISCIPLINARY INVESTIGATION OF THE TECHNIQUE.
KEYWORDS: wall painting; technique, fresco, secco, lime, Trecento and Quattrocento; plaster, pigments; laboratory analysis
G.C. Borellini, G. Cavagnini, C. Coccoli, M. Mapelli
LA DOCUMENTAZIONE DEGLI INTERVENTI SUI DIPINTI MURALI ATTRAVERSO L’UTILIZZO DELLA TECNOLOGIA G.I.S.: IL CASO DEL MONASTERO DI CAIRATE (VA).
The work’s aim is to describe an experience of documentation about the conservation project of painted surfaces, through the use of a geographic information system (G.I.S.). The project, financed by the Soprintendenza dei Beni Architettonici e del Paesaggio of Milan, involve a part of the monastery cloister in Cairate (VA) as an experimental prototype for the future whole conservation of the monastery.
The quantity and quality of preliminary knowledge and data, useful for the building and painting conservation, constitute an “open” information system, which can turn the different operating choices enabling to verify and control them and enriching itself through the different phases in order to become a data base for following operations.
The choice of manage the conservation work with a G.I.S. derives from the specific potentiality given to the organization, archives and management of data both of preliminary phases and following conservation operations.
KEY-WORD: conservation, restoration, painting, fresco, documentation, G.I.S., Cairate (VA)
F. Bonacci, S. De Giorgi, M. Giambruno, R. Simonelli
L’APPARATO DECORATIVO NELL’EDILIZIA ECONOMICO POPOLARE. IL CASO DEL VILLAGGIO ANDREA DEL SARTO A MILANO.
The economic-popular quarter Andrea del Sarto is an example of garden village in Milan.
Planned and realized from the Technical Office of Istituto Economico Case Popolari between 1924 and 1925, it is composed of eleven buildings of two or three floors, with private small gardens.
The elements that connote the simple architectures -with the foreheads in tile or in plaster- are pictorial decorations, realized in a different design, that mark the facades and emphasize the openings.
Today, in front of the necessity of urgent interventions, the operating practice is qualitatively poor, heedless of material, ambient and aesthetic values of the village. In particular, the conservative maintenance of decorated plasters, in homogeneous urban complex, requires cheap and operating programming of the works: geometrical reliefs, fast diagnosticians, criterions for figurative reintegration and instructions for apply compatible materials.
KEY-WORD: ALER Milano, Urban conservation, painting plasters, figurative reintegration.
G. Lorenzini, B. Scala
UN PROTAGONISTA DEL RESTAURO PITTORICO NEL BRESCIANO: I 55 ANNI DI ATTIVITÀ MARIO PESCATORI.
This study shows Mario Pescatori’s works.
Mario Pescatori was a restorer in Brescia and its provinces from 1930 to 1970. During this long period Mario Pescatori. worked in many places being involved in restoration of painting.
He started as a decorator and he became a restorator of wall paintings.
We analyse some cases to have information and answers about the method, the technology, the materials he used. We also examine the way he used to fill the gaps in the paintings he restored and the available documentation concerning his works.
These documents show that Pescatori’s works were supervised by the “Soprintendenza regionale” and his works are not the results of personal choices.
KEY-WORD: restauro, affresco, tempera, olio
LA PITTURA MURALE ATTRAVERSO TRATTATI E MANUALI DI TECNICA ARTISTICA DALL’ALTO MEDIOEVO ALL’ETÀ RINASCIMENTALE.
The text re-examines the most important technical treatises on the arts of painting, recipe books and manuals dating from the VIIIth to XVth centuries (Compositiones ad tingenda musiva, Mappae Clavicula, De coloribus et artibus Romanorum, Schedula diversiarum artium, Liber Magistri Petri de Sancto Audemaro de coloribus faciendi, Il libro dell’arte of Cennino Cennini, Experimenta de coloribus of Alcherio, Manoscritto veneziano, Segreti dei colori, De re edificatoria of L.B. Alberti, Trattato di Architettura of Filarete) pointing out precepts, instructions, indications or complete treatments about mural painting, from the technique to the utilized pigments or materials. This survey analyses the development of the technical treatises and manuals and the transmission of the technical knowledge in relation to artistic practice.
Key-word: mural painting, pigments, technique, treatises.
LA CONOSCENZA DEI MODI DI COSTRUIRE ANTICHI TRAMITE LE FONTI INDIRETTE: IL CASO DEI RIVESTIMENTI MURARI DIPINTI.
The paper deals with the chances we have to use the documentary sources to obtain a better knowledge of the ancient buildings. For this purpose the paper will use, as reference, the examples of soma painted decorations belonging to “modern” buildings in Genoa. The first part will be devoted to a sort of brief summary of the main categories of sources (cartographic, iconographic, written or oral). The second part aims to illustrate the researches carried out in Genoa with particular attention to: forms of contracts, decoration typologies, types of plasters, pigments. As far as it is possible the collected information are compared with the data deriving from the analysis of existing buildings.
Key-words: knowledge, documentary sources, history, techniques
L. De Marco
TERMINATI I RESTAURI, CONSERVIAMO LA CONOSCENZA. UN MONITORAGGIO DIFFUSO DELLE FACCIATE DIPINTE A GENOVA.
Painted decoration represents one of the most frequent finishing of façades in Italy and Europe. In many areas it still confers a particular character to the built environment. Mural paintings, however, due to their intrinsic fragility and their relatively easy execution, have undergone repeated re-makings over the centuries, and the same is happening to their conservation interventions. Unfortunately, their general appreciation has activated widespread insensitive recover and maintenance works which are cancelling what still remains, in name of a colourful and reassuring image. The examples of still existing painted façades and their decay problems suggests, on the contrary, the need for monitoring the results and the durability of conservation treatments, to improve the quality of future interventions. This paper proposes a monitoring programme of the recent works carried out on several painted façades in the historic centre of Genoa, which aims at collecting and organising data, useful for the development of a maintenance programme and to control the transformation of the urban image.
keywords: intervention monitoring programmes, decorated façades, conservation, programmed maintenance
M. Cecera, T. Ciresola, A. Decri, M.Franzini Tibaldeo, F. Laiolo, L. Nanni, A. Para.
UN’IPOTESI DI CODIFICA NELLE PROCEDURE DI RESTAURO DELLE FACCIATE DIPINTE.
This essay documents the proposal of an analytical and methodological path, whose steps could be taken under control.
In this order, great importance was given to the elements making restoration a process, that is the analysis of the stratigraphical display, the comprehension of the alterations, the valuation of the techniques and procedures concerning with painted surfaces.
In order to make clear the method, several different methodological ‘moments’, called ‘thresholds’, were indentified and put in a progressive order. The opposite points of the range are represented by, on one hand, the rigorous maintenance of the status (threshold 1) and, on the other, the complete renewal (threshold 8). Great attention was paid in describing precisely the procedures that differentiate a threshold from an other, specifing the operations of every single step and applicating the system on a real case through virtual simulations: the painted façade of Piazza Campetto, 5 (Genova).
Key-words: PROCESS, PROCEDURES, TECHNIQUES, THRESHOLDS, VIRTUAL SIMULATION
DAL REGOLAMENTO PER INCENTIVARE IL RESTAURO DELLE FACCIATE DIPINTE DEL CENTRO STORICO DI CHIAVENNA (SO) ALLA SPERIMENTAZIONE DI STRUMENTI INNOVATIVI PER LA CONSERVAZIONE PROGRAMMATA.
In 2000 intact and unsuspected mural paintings were discovered during the restoration works on a facade in the historical centre of Chiavenna (Sondrio). The painted façade, belonging to the end of the 16th century, was restored and the Municipality decided to work out a regulation to promote restoration interventions on the facades of the historical centre by giving incentives to the private owners. In 2004 Regione Lombardia adopted Chiavenna as a pilot area of the INTERREG III B “CulturALP” Project: The aim is the experimentation of innovative tools for planned conservation and restoration of the alpine built heritage. As regard as the painted facades, the municipal and the regional authorities are going to test a plan for the management of the planned conservation process.
KEY-WORD: regulation, painted facades, planned conservation, policies
D. Rancilio, L. Sala, B. Scala, A. Trazzi
LA LETTURA DEGLI INTERVENTI PER LE DEFINIZIONE DEL PROGETTO DI RESTAURO IN ALCUNI CANTIERI DELLA SOPRINTENDENZA DI BRESCIA BB.AA.P.
The topic of the study develops the importance of a preventive and in itinere critical analysis of the previous maintenance work of wall paintings.
In the activity of the Monuments and Fine Arts Service three cases have been noticed where the project of restoration of the painted surfaces has been confronted with conditions of preservation and materials derived from a culture of the practice of restoration in different historical periods from the eighteenth century up to the first half of the last century.
The Averoldi Chapel in the Church of Santa Maria del Carmine in Brescia houses a crucifix, painting always attributed to Vincenzo Foppa.
During the recent intervention of restoration some data have emerged and they clear up the quality of the elements of the work assembled during a restoration of the 18th century.
At the Sanctuary of Montecastello in Tignale the cleaning works of the frescoes that have been recently done have highlighted the will in the nineteenth-century action of Volpi to remove the baroque modifications and to propose again in a personal way the iconography of the fifteenth-century painting still perfectly preserved.
In the fifties of the 20th century in San Lorenzo di Bovegno the restorer Battista Simoni realized a restoration of the inner mural paintings by using methodologies and techniques in use at that time damaging in an irreversible way the transmission of the work to nowaydays.
KEY-WORD: restauro, affresco, tecniche storiche
L. Morganti, V. White
DALLA CASA MADRE IN POI: NUOVE ACQUISIZIONI SUL PERCORSO TECNICO DI SANTAGATA E OPPO.
The technical knowledge of wall painting used by the painters A. G. Santagata and C. E. Oppo has been traced in the previous study about Casa Madre dei Mutilati e Invalidi di Guerra in Rome. The same technical procedure has been found in other pictorial cycles: for Oppo only S. Benedetto in Pomezia (1939); for Santagata a large number of decorations in public, civil and religious buildings dating from 1925 to 1975. This study analyzes all the followings cycles: Aula delle Adunate in Casa Madre in Rome, ex- Casa Littoria in Bergamo, the Sanctuary Regina Apostolorum in Rome, the Sanctuary Nostra Signora della Guardia in Bolzaneto (Genova) and the cathedral of Recco (Genova). Oppo had been using fresco technique for three years while the debate on mural painting was taking place. Santagata, on the other hand, considered fresco the natural way to express his artistic creed.
KEY-WORD: wall painting, fresco study, twentyth century, technique, debate, Oppo, Santagata
LE PROPOSTE DI ALOIS RIEGL AI DIPINTI MURALI DELLA CHIESA DELL’INVIOLATA A RIVA DEL GARDA.
La comunicazione illustra la proposta di intervento sulle decorazioni della Chiesa dell’Inviolata di Riva del Garda da parte di Alois Riegl che, in un sopralluogo del 1904, blocca i lavori avviati dall’Ingegnere incaricato dalla Commissione Centrale Tomasi, proponendo una nuova metodologia d’intervento.
La riflessione di Riegl si sofferma sullo stato di conservazione dei dipinti e delle altre decorazioni interne, ritenuto meno compromesso di quanto a lui descritto; quindi progetta una soluzione per eliminare la causa principale scatenante il degrado ed illustra delle proposte di metodo per l’intervento sulle lacune L’opera di restauro è eseguita da restauratori accreditati, Cavenaghi e Calori, che promettono di registrare le fasi di lavoro e i materiali utilizzati come richiesto dallo stesso Riegl.
A distanza di quasi cento anni dall’esecuzione del lavoro sono riemerse alcune patologie già rilevate in passato che stanno compromettendo nuovamente la conservazione degli affreschi.
KEY-WORD: restauro, affresco
SANTUARIO DI SANT’ANTONIO ABATE IN MILANO: L’APPARATO DECORATIVO AD AFFRESCO E A STUCCO.
S.Antonio Abate shrine is in the city center of Milan. It was built in 1584, according to the project of the architect Dionigi Campazzo, that englobed and enlarged an old church.
The shape, inside, is a latin cross and aisleless. The decorations are frescos and rich partly gilt stuccos.
The most important fresco, an area of about 500 mq, is the “Stories of the Cross” that covers the vault of the nave. The fresco, a work of the brothers Giovanni e Giovanni Battista Carlone, dated between 1631+1632, has been recently restaured.
Key-words: Ecclesiastical buildings, churches, fresco, stucco, Carlone.
COLORI IN CANTIERE: ESEMPI GENOVESI DEL SETTECENTO.
The aim of this paper is to report the kind of some pigments used in building during the XVIII century in Genoa. The matter has been studied on written sorces, with the opportunity of collect prices and pounds of colors.
KEY-WORDS: written sources, colors, XVIII century, Genoa.
A. Alberti, L. Scardino, D. Spoletini, G. Accordino, F. Urselli, S. Ciliani
FERRARA - UN CICLO PITTORICO DI ISPIRAZIONE SOCIALISTA IN PALAZZO TODESCHI.
The elaborate pictorial cycle of the first “Camera del Lavoro” in Ferrara (1920), situated into a sumptuous eighteenth century palace (Palazzo Todeschi), had been hidden for long time under some controsoffitti. In consequence of recent repairs, these inspiration socialist paintings have revived the characteristics of art nouveau style of early years of XX century, but also have showed their oneness theme. In other places, other kind of these paintings have unfortunately been lost cause of the historical events immediately subsequent the coming of Fascist regime. The pictorial cycle was painting by Ildebrando Capatti, author of the ornates, and Leone Caravita, author of the figures, both sympathizer of socialism.
The ceiling’s decoration of the two adjacent rooms was realized by tempera directly on the plaster incannucciato’s vault and on the perimetrical fascias of the rooms. The cycle represents Work’s praise parted in daily and nightly life. The first room’s ceiling is decorated with the terrestrial globe divided into two parts. The frescos of west and east first room’s walls represent, in the lower fascia, the agricultural daily works and carpenter works. The second room’s vault is characterized by a starry sky and lunar phases. The lower fascia is painted with some nightly works, like baker, and miner. On the background of the second room are represented the images of factories.
The restoration allow the comparison with an unusual modernist iconography and a modern pictorial technique, as regard the material aspect of its execution (dyes and supports).
KEYWORDS: Ferrara, “Camera del Lavoro”, pictorial cycle, socialist inspiration
V. Dal Piaz, C. Visentin
LA SCALA DEL SAPERE DEL BO A PADOVA: GIO PONTI ARCHITETTO-PITTORE.
It is the 1940th and the architect Gio Ponti, as painter, covers of impressive figures the walls of Padua University Palazzo del Bo main stairs. The stairs complex for the Rector apartments is the constructed explicitness of the intentions and the methods of architectural research that Ponti enunciated ever in its writings and reviews. Inside the Domus’s issue of November of the previous year he quoted: "True architecture captured us in its spaces, makes us to walk, makes us to go up and to come down, to watch in on and in down, to lose us in the spaces, makes us to strike the heart of room in room, of diversity in diversity, game in game, light in light: a bewitched castle". A rationalistic lesson which has the taste of the past. A synergy between architecture and decorative arts, but above all with the greater one: the painting. The painted surface of the walls, from its immovability, typical of decorative arts, releases with the intervention of Ponti in unusual plasticity made by the relationship between the architecture of the building and the powerful of the decoration. Creating a unicum, a total art work. In this specific case, the Scala del Sapere is analyzed through the reading of decorative apparatus and architectural support, supplying information on the materials documents kept in the Archives of the University of Padua.
KEY-WORD: Gio Ponti, Padua University, Architecture, Painting.
B. Cerrina Feroni, S. Garufi, G. Jean, L. Jurina, G. Malvisi, S. Nani, F. Petracco
INTERVENIRE PRIMA DELLA ROVINA: IL CONSOLIDAMENTO DELLA CADUTA DI CRISTO NEL NOVIZIATO DELL’EX CONVENTO GEROLAMINO AD OSPEDALETTO LODIGIANO.
The intervention required to secure the fresco painted wall in the ancient Noviziato of the Gerolamini in Ospedaletto Lodigiano – representing the Falling Christ holding the cross - required a strict collaboration between different professionals involved to face architectural as well as structural and painting conservational issues. The deep decay of the surfaces were manly caused by the collapse of the top cross vault due to severe structural problems and by the poor construction of the wall where the painting was realised in 1723. The strengthening of the structure was assured throught a series of drillings, necessary to bind the leading walls. This work couldn’t have done without an emergency intervention from a fully qualified team of restorers and it was sucessfully completed with no futher damage for the painting.
KEY-WORD: collapse, structural decay, emergency intervention
S. Bertano, M. Goldoni, A. Lenti, B. Pani
ALLA RICERCA DEI SEGNI “QUASI” PERDUTI: PROBLEMATICHE SULLE FACCIATE DIPINTE.
The study of some painted façades in the historical centre of Genoa proved to be a search occasion of some central themes of the restoration project as the graphic representation technics of signs which are present in the historical material and are caused by natural and anthropical actions. The image processing showed to be an essential instrument for the research of undetectable traces by the simple human vision.
The experimentation of such technics went beyond the surveying and revealed remarkable support capacity to the restoration project. This experimentation enabled the virtual “simulation” of the intervention solution, the confrontation and the investigation of some themes as the lacunae treatment which are particularly problematical at the theoretical stage.
The results obtained with these instruments can become the core of the debate from new technical and theoretical approaches could arise.
KEY-WORD: painted façades, graphic representation, image processing, traces, restoration project, simulation, lacuna.
P. Ruschi, S. Giovannoni, S. Luppichini, S. Penoni, C. Todaro
INTERVENTI DI RITROVAMENTO E DI RESTAURO CONSERVATIVO DELLE PITTURE MURALI DI PALAZZO CAISELLI A UDINE.
Prior to the restoration of palazzo Caiselli, one the most important buildings in Udine, one was unaware of the sheer quantity and variety of the decorations awaiting recovery within its walls. The challenge was to unveil its complex decorative wealth, which had been up to that moment concealed by numerous layers of whitewash. The subsequent patient and careful task of uncovering and restoration spanned over almost two years. The restoration therefore focused on the recovery of mural paintings by removal of various types of whitewash, making use of both mechanical and chemical techniques, always with a care and respect for the original materials. The interventions performed also allowed to closely study the various forms of mural and wooden supports (known as arelle), evaluate their current condition and determine their effect on the various layers of plaster that have been added over time.The recovery of the vast and complex decorative system entailed the use of many different intervention and improvement procedures, but also allowed the observation and close study of a wide range of decorative techniques. Furthermore previously unknown paintworks were brought back to the light, some of which extremely rare in the areas of Udine and the surrounding Friuli region.
KEY-WORD: Udine, whitewash, mechanical and chemical techniques, wooden supports, arelle, plaster.
S. Penoni, M. R. Lanfranchi
OSSERVAZIONI SU ALCUNE MALTE DA INIEZIONE PER LA RIADESIONE DEGLI INTONACI NELLE PITTURE MURALI.
ABSTRACT: The present research is an empirical study of the behaviour of some of the materials used to restore the adherence of plaster detachments, in the exclusive within of the restoration of wall paintings. In such experimentation we first defined the characteristics of selected adhesive materials (PLM A, LEDAN SM02, COURTAULD and ICCROM mortars) and then we verified their behaviour by injecting them inside a detachment area between two plaster layers. This analysis was made possible thanks to the preparation, in laboratory, of test samples that simulated the conditions of an actual detachment. In this way it was possible to collected a significant amount of data, resulting both from direct observation and from quantitative measurements after the samples dissection.
KEY-WORD: all paintings, mortars, conservation, adhesive materials, detachments.
GLI ENZIMI: LIMITI E POTENZIALITÀ NEL CAMPO DELLA PULITURA DELLE PITTURE MURALI.
The present study concerns enzymes, with specific regard to their application in the cleaning of mural paintings. Potential and limits of this method will be explained, as resulted from a comprehensive set of tests performed during experimentation. The latter has been subject to two distinct phases: a first one conducted by means of laboratory tests, a second one by directly applying enzymatic treatments on ancient mural paintings.
KEY-WORD: Enzymes, Mural Paintings, Cleaning, Experimentation.
O. Niglio, M. Giraldo
PALAZZO ALTINI A PISA: STORIA, ICONOGRAFIA E RESTAURO DELLE PITTURE MURALI A GRAFFITO.
Since 1925 Palazzo Altini is one of the real estate in Pisa of great interest from the historical and artistic point of view. It is an uncommon example of graffito-pisana decoration which has been damaged during the war.
the first world war, the Superintendence refused the request of its owner to
receive contributions for the restoration of the façade. Only the 30 of May
1950 the Ministry of Education notifies by letter that “the Altini House is of
relevant interest, according to the law of the
In 1989 the façade has been restored and the elaboration of the historical and iconographical documentation allows to rebuild the knowledge on the Altini building that after 15 years represents the foundation of new preservative activities.
Key-Word: Decoration, Graffiti, Restoration, Embellishment.
LE MEMORIE DELLA CITTÀ DI TORINO AL CIMITERO MONUMENTALE ATTRAVERSO LE PITTURE MURALI DELLA PRIMA E SECONDA AMPLIAZIONE.
La storia della Città di Torino, la cultura dei luoghi, delle persone, interpretate dalle pitture murali, sono raccontate al Cimitero Monumentale, dalla Prima e Seconda Ampliazione, progettate dall’Architetto di Casa Reale Carlo Sada nel 1841 e nel 1866.
La carenza di manutenzione, l’inquinamento e agli agenti atmosferici, hanno contribuito al deterioramento delle pitture murali, spesso ricoperte di sali, realizzate su intonaci deteriorati dalle infiltrazioni d’acqua dal tetto e a volte coperte da coloriture di cromia non originale.
Dopo un’analisi dei materiali utilizzati in origine, è stato progettato l’intervento di restauro, nel completo rispetto dell’esistente, recuperando i decori murali originali, attraverso la pulitura delle superfici, la rimozione dei sali, il ripristino degli intonaci ed infine delle pitture.
The story, the culture and the people of Turin are told by the wall paintings of the City Monumental Cemetery since the first and second extension, respectively done by 1841 and 1866, and designed by Carlo Sada, architect of the Royals.
A not appropriate maintenance and the air pollution aided the deterioration of the wall paintings, already damaged by water infiltration from the roof, often covered by salts and coloured with not original tonalities.
Once completed the analysis of the original materials used and the relevant literature, the restoration of the wall paintings has been planned in order to recover the original work, with the respect of the existent parts carrying out an accurate surfaces cleaning, salts removal and at end plaster and painting restoring.
KEY-WORD: Cimitero di Torino, conservazione, pitture murali.
Monumental Cemetery of Turin, conservation, wall paintings.
G.B. Sannazzaro, S. Bandera, G. Carminati, A. Rondena, L. Parma, E. Canotti
LA DECORAZIONE PITTORICA DAL MEDIOEVO AL RINASCIMENTO NEL MONASTERO CISTERCENSE DI MORIMONDO (MILANO).
The Morimondo Monastry was built from 1136 on.
Its large architectural structure consists of four floors, and shows a pictorial decoration very unusual in the Cistercian order.
The main stages of its pictorial decoration are the following:
1. 1160 – 1180: drawings and writings with didactic function in the novices’ hall
2. First half of XII century: fresco decoration on all the walls of the third floor of the choir monks’ wing
3. First half of XV century: frescoes representing monks and pilgrims
4. Second half of XV century: red ochre monochrome paintings in the open gallery, to follow the architectural innovations introduced in the second half of the XV c., such as windows, doors and columns
Key-word: Decorations, Monastry, Morimondo, Cistercian, Abbey, Middle Ages, Renaissance
A. Rava, M. Tanga, O. Novarino
GLI AFFRESCHI DI ROSSO DI BUSCA NELLA CONFRATERNITA DELLA MISERICORDIA DI SALUZZO. TECNICA, MATERIALI E RESTAURO.
ABSTRACT:The paper describes the restoration of the frescoes of Rosso di Busca in the church of “Confraternita della Misericordia” in Saluzzo, particularly important in the history of quadraturistic mural paintings in Piedmont area in the XVIII century.
Pigments and mortars of the frescoes were examined with reconstruction of the technique of execution with a detailed preparatory drawing and the “incisione” of the shape of architecture paint with “mezzo fresco” technique.
During the work a digital photogrammetric drawing of the central dome was performed, with the representation of a part of the dome with new instrumentation and methods like the tridimensional ortophotography and the use of stereophoto paper for the renderings.
This will allow to construct a digital model to simulate a virtual view of different prospective scenes of the frescoes.
KEY-WORD: quadraturistic photogrammetric drawing, restoration, pigments identification
A. Altieri, A. Giovagnoli, S. Ricci
ANALISI DELLO ‘SPORCAMENTO’ DI SUPERFICI PER UNA DIAGNOSI SPEDITIVA DEL DEGRADO DI DIPINTI PARIETALI ANTICHI.
The archaeological sites are characterized by a large variety of shelters installed to protect remains such as frescoes or mosaics. The aim of this work was to investigate the effects of shelters on the state of conservation of ancient mural paintings by characterizing the degree of blackening. The monitoring of surface blackening of artificial sample tests was carried out in situ by non-destructive apparatus: video-microscopy and photocolorimeter. The sample tests were exposed in four italian archaeological sites, under different types of shelters to evaluate the environmental risk produced on the ancient mural paintings. The monitoring was carried out at definite intervals of time. The efficacy of the methodology was evaluated in order to standardize this procedure in the conservation field.
KEY-WORD: dust, particulate, brillance, blackening, biodeterioration, archaeological shelters
LA “CRAQUELURE” O “CAVILLATURA” SUPERFICIALE UN‘ALTERAZIONE CARATTERISTICA DELLE SUPERFICI DIPINTE: CAUSE, EFFETTI, EVOLUZIONE TRA STORIA E SPERIMENTAZIONE.
The present contribution describes the results that have been achieved within the research "Atlas of the decay phenomena of the materials of architecture" on the study of a typical form of alteration of painted surfaces, known as craquelure. This phenomenon, within a certain range of width of the cracks, can be considered a physiological alteration of painted surfaces. Assuming this assumption as a point of departure for the research, it has been possible to distinguish a number of modifications that can co-exist and interact, thus producing complex combinations of phenomena which are among the main causes of decay of mural paintings. The analysis of written sources, scientific investigations and the experiments conducted during the research have shown that the causes of the crackle are influenced by the nature of the mortar mixtures, to the techniques of execution used to construct the mural structure, to the exposure of these artefacts. The research has highlighted that, in some cases, the formation of these hair cracks was probable an effect foreseen by the plaster-makers themselves. Investigations on the possible evolution of this phenomenon and of its influence on the future conservation of lime plasters show that in many circumstances the damages due to this decay form are less dangerous than what is usually estimated.
KEY-WORD: atlas, stone decay, decay phenomena; analysis; diagnosis; stony artificial materials; restoration; architecture.
F. Caldarola, R. Laviano, E. Scandale, F. Vona
IL RESTAURO DELL’ARCO SAN NICOLA A MOLFETTA: UNA PREGEVOLE RISCOPERTA.
Some fresco votive images (San Corrado, Madonna dei Martiri, San Nicola) were represented on the vault of a Roman arch in the most ancient part of Molfetta. A careful work of restoration has prevented the detachment of the frescos from the calcareous surface and, at the same time, has showed – hidden under a thick layer of mortar - the existence of valuable palimpsests dated from the XIV to the XVII century.
Thanks to the help of diagnostic methods - such as Optical Microscopy (OM) and Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM) with Microanalysis (EDS) on thin sections and macroscopic samples – we’ve been able to collect a large number of preliminary information to restoration: the composition of the mortars used as support for the fresco painting; the chemical composition of the pigments (bituminous sulphur, blue smalt, yellow and red ochre) and the pictorial technique; the degradation caused by the humane and environmental actions (the area is at open air but sheltered from the rain); the previous works of restoration; the choice of the useful substances for restoration. The most interesting results come from the analysis of the black pigment which is the consequence of the thin pounding of bituminous sulphur crystals and from the traces of a superficial treatment of the calcareous substrate consisting of an air lime finish mixed with the yellow ochre pigment. It has been demonstrated that this thin and uniform layer has really not allowed the deterioration of the underlying stone surface.
KEY-WORD: Bituminous Sulphur, Blue Smalt, Yellow Ochre, Red Ochre, Palimpsest, Mortars.
A. Calia, M. Lettieri, M. Masieri, D. Melica, G. Quarta
INDAGINI CONOSCITIVE PRELIMINARI ALL’INTERVENTO DI RESTAURO DELLA CRIPTA DEL CROCIFISSO (UGENTO, LECCE): PRIMI DATI.
The Crypt of the Crucifix is a typical example of a hypogeum crypt-church and is dated between 13th and 15th centuries.
In relation to the conservation work regarding the recovery, promotion and use of the crypt, a study was carried out on the pigments used for the wall paintings, the plasters, and the painting techniques. A study was also carried out in order to determine the state of conservation of the painted surfaces and the characterization of the surface patinas. In addition, tests were performed to evaluate the content of humidity in certain points of the walls and to identify the main types of soluble salts.
The study was conducted by means of the following analyses: mineralogical, petrographic and stratigraphic observations with an optical microscope in transmitted and reflected light, EDS microanalyses, infrared spectroscopic analyses (FT-IR), tests to determine the water content by means of weight measurements and analyses of the soluble salts by ion chromatography.
The studies carried out made it possible to identify the components of both plasters and paints, as well as to uncover portions of paintings that had been obscured by fading. Analyses also revealed that likely a conservative treatment had been carried out the surfaces.
Key words: Puglia, crypt, wall paintings, characterisation of plasters and pigments, diagnostic study.
G Bentivoglio, A M. Oteri
«TANTI SOTTILI FILAMENTI RAVVICINATI». L’INTEGRAZIONE PITTORICA TRA RICOMPOSIZIONE E RICOSTRUZIONE NELLE PRIME ESPERIENZE DI CESARE BRANDI: IL RESTAURO DEL CICLO DI AFFRESCHI DI LORENZO DA VITERBO NELLA CAPPELLA MAZZATOSTA (1944-49).
The traumatic experience of the world conflict characterizes, with the birth of the so-called ‘restauro critico’, an important stage in the evolution of the theoretical thought on the architectonic restoration. Meaningfully, however, while interventions on damaged monuments, follow criteria that derogate from the principles of the so-called ‘restauro filologico’ and they mark, for many aspects, a regression of the matter, is in relation to restoration of paintings that we can record a significant disciplinary advancement. In 1946 Cesare Brandi experiences the technique of integration with ‘tratteggio’ in occasion of the restorations of frescoes dedicates to the Vergine Maria into the Cappella Mazzatosta head in the Church of S. Maria della Verità in Viterbo.
The theoretical foundation of this new technique, that will be an important aspect of Brandi’s theory on restoration, is in the requirement to give back the frescoes a unit that the new fragment condition (even if recomposed) does not concur to pick up and the usual procedures to neutral character, invocate from philological theory, do not concur to re-establish. This new technique is also useful to reorganize that dialogue, that he considers as interrupted, between painting (the fragments of frescoes) and architecture (the integral chapel). With the help of existing documentation, this essay inquires the theoretical foundations from which the intervention moves. The restoration, in fact, places like interesting prelude to Brandi’s Theory and to the definition of ‘critical’ guide lines.
KEY-WORDS: lacuna, fragment, recomposition, reconstruction, integration, unity.
ARCHITETTURA STORICISTA E DECORAZIONE PITTORICA. CASE D’ABITAZIONE DEGLI ANNI DIECI E VENTI A PADOVA.
Until the third decade of the 1900s, pictorial decorations were often used as ornaments of the fronts of the new buildings. These decorations are present already on the drawings and are integrant part of the composition of the architecture of that period. Often they are resolved in the interaction of geometrical simple motives, in other cases they consist in more articulate representations, connected to the style of the past taken into reference for the architecture.
The buildings considered, nearly always deprived of artistic value according to the set of rules in force, rise on the urban areas around the historical centre on which today the interest of the building market is concentrated, and with it a consequent, widespread, speculative interference, that doesn’t always reflect the original disposition of the architecture.
In this aspect resides the actuality of the topic, centred on expressive episodes within Padua of the transformations that are operated, with regard of the pictorial decoration.
KEY-WORD: Padua, architecture, dwelling-house, decoration.
I.E. Cançado Alcolea, D.Pittaluga
BRASILE, UN PAESE NATO SOTTO IL SEGNO DEL COLORE.
Nel Brasile coesistono oggi diverse contraddizioni: grande ricchezza di materie prime e ricerca di prodotti di tipo industriale, permanenza di tecniche tradizionali e applicazione di regole importate. Questa situazione investe anche il campo dell’edilizia e diventa particolarmente evidente nel XX secolo.
La maggior parte delle costruzioni delle grandi città brasiliane, infatti, risale alla fine del XIX secolo e al XX secolo; molti edifici, al momento, sono bisognosi di restauro, tra questi anche alcuni già restaurati agli inizi del Novecento. La conoscenza dei prodotti tradizionali e delle tecniche di esecuzione è quindi indispensabile per medglio orientare gli interventi sul costruito. Di seguito vengono inseriti alcuni elementi per comprendere meglio la complessa situazione di questo paese .
(Key-word: color, micro-la micro-layer coatings, Brasile, chemical physical archaelogical analyses, materiel)
D. Bosia, G. Franco
TRACCE DIPINTE DI STORIE PASSATE.
The marks, now faded, painted on ancient facades are in many cases the only physical evidence of small or greater stories of populations, rural territories, towns. These masonry surfaces may have been painted for different aims, not only for decorative purposes, but also for political, commercial, functional and religious reasons. These painted evidences are now disappearing not only for natural causes: during the recent restorations, ancient plasters and painted decoration and inscriptions have been removed. The conservation of these traces, even if they have been inserted under the fascist regime, should be considered as a duty, even as the conservation of other historical documentation. Diagnostic analyses and techniques of intervention could help architects and operators in their conservative purpose, also because sometime the materials used in the painted inscriptions – as under the fascism – are sill unknown.
KEY-WORD: Painted traces, Conservation, Restoration, History
L. Bruno, S. Piermarini, P. Albertano
LA SPETTRORADIOMETRIA NEL VISIBILE APPLICATA AL MONITORAGGIO E CONTROLLO DEL BIODETERIORAMENTO DELLE PITTURE MURALI NELLE CATACOMBE ROMANE.
The biofilms present on the wall paintings of the Ocean’s Cubiculum inside the Catacombs of St. Callistus in Rome (Italy), were analysed in a series of researches aimed to prevent and/or limit the biodeterioration processes. The effect of different lamps on the development of cyanobacteria-dominated biofilms was studied by a portable spectroradiometer that allowed the registration of emission spectra between 400 and 700 nm. On the basis of the data obtained, the emission properties of the lamps installed in the cubiculum were characterised, the wavelengths used by phototrophs determined, the biofilm growth quantified, and the in situ effect of a monochromatic blue light on biofilm development was assessed. The employment of this innovative and non-invasive method is suggested as a useful mean to monitor phototrophic communities on stone and to control the biodeterioration processes inside archaeological hypogea.
KEY WORDS: stone biodeterioration, phototrophic biofilms, hypogea, spectroradiometry, monitoring.
VILLA TORLONIA: TECNICHE E PROBLEMATICHE DI UN ECLETTICO APPARATO DECORATIVO MURALE.
Villa Torlonia comprises ten buildings, all built during the first half of the 19th century in completely different styles and richly decorated according to the reining eclecticism of the time. The two main buildings, the Palazzo or Main House, and the Theatre have walls and vaults covered with painted decoration divided by stucco or marble.
The wall paintings in the Palazzo date from around 1853 and were done by a group of artists that were inspired by “Purism” a movement that championed a return to the art of the Renaissance, also from a technical point of view. Of particular importance was the recuperation of the fresco techniques, long since forgotten in favour of more simpler approaches. For this reason much of the wall decoration of the Palazzo is generally done using frescos, even if there are numerous touch-ups done once the wall was dry. On the contrary, the wall decoration of the theatre was done a decade later, between 1844 and 1845 and doesn’t contain frescoed portions. Perhaps Prince Torlonia haste, anxious as he was to finish the building, led the artists to use more rapid techniques such as tempera and oil on the walls.
The restoration of the wall decorations of the two buildings, currently underway, allow for both an analysis of the techniques and the support used, with interesting notations on the materials and systems adopted.
Key words: Rome, Torlonia, fresco, oil on wall, tempera, Purism, eclecticism.
GLI AFFRESCHI DI VILLA DEL BENE A VOLARGNE. CONOSCENZA, COMPLESSITÀ DEL REALE E PROGETTO.
GLI AFFRESCHI DI VILLA IMPERIALE DI TERRALBA. EVOLUZIONE DELLA PITTURA MURALE A GENOVA TRA RINASCIMENTO E BAROCCO: PARTICOLARITÀ TECNICHE E TIPOLOGIE DI DEGRADO.
The Villa Imperiale of Terralba was built during the second half of the 15th century. During the 16th century were made important architectural interventions. The frescos of the main floor rooms, restored in 2004, were started during the half of the 16th century and concluded in the beginning of the 17th century. They were made with techniques used during the 15th century and others new, from the “barocco” picture of the 17th century. The techniques and materials deterioration was analysed by the Soprintendenza Laboratory. Note the analysis and documentation of blue "smaltino" and green malachite tempera paint, apply on dark frescos ground, the deterioration of biacca tempera paint used in different techniques.
KEY-WORD: enamel blue, malachite green, fresco, Genoa, biacca tempera, Luca Cambiaso, Villa Imperiale.
R. Lorusso, R. Laviano, F. Vona, R. Bellantuono, F. Longobardi
GLI AFFRESCHI DI SANTO STEFANO DI SOLETO (LECCE).
all the walls of the church of St. Stefano in Soleto (Lecce-Italy) are present
fresco technique decorations executed in two distinct phases, the first around
1384 and the second datable between
KEY – WORD: Gothic; Salento; Fresco-technique; Mapping; Diagnostics.
G.M. Rispoli, G. Greco, M. Amodio, C. Colella, M. de’ Gennaro, O. Marino, P.G. Cappelletti, A. Colella, M. Colella, M. Vento, P. Foggia, A. Limongiello
ANALISI INTEGRATA E RESTITUZIONE VIRTUALE DI MONUMENTI DELLA PITTURA ANTICA: L'IPOGEO DI CAIVANO.
Within a research plan, aiming to obtain a more accurate historical-archaeological and artistic understanding of the Ipogeo di Caivano, a funerary monument of Roman age, located in the Archaeological Museum of Naples, this investigation reports an integrated analysis of the frescoes, which is, on one side, of archaeometric character (investigation on the pigments and the plaster and stone supports) and, on the other side, faces the problem of acquiring, processing and publishing high quality images of the painted walls. The goal is to provide a chromatic fidelity and an adequate level of detail for the needs of an expert observer, while keeping the transfer time acceptable on a common Internet connection. Important outcomes of this work, apart the development of advanced instrumental and information techniques, have been a more correct description of the images, the reconstruction of the ancient techniques of wall preparation prior to spread the paints and the individuation of the preliminary design realised through cutting into the fresh plaster. In addition, it is believed that the computer-aided virtual restitution of the painted walls, besides having a great documentary value, will be an useful guide for making a correct restoration plan.
KEY-WORD: hypogeum, Roman paintings, ancient plasters, ancient pigments, virtual museum; high resolution images; mosaicing; Internet fruition
M.P. Colombini, G. Giachi, P. Pallecchi, E. Ribechini, U. Bartolucci
LA TECNICA PITTORICA NELLA TOMBA ILDEBRANDA (III SEC. A.C.).
The Ildebranda Tomb, near Sovana (Grosseto, Italy) is considered to be one of the most important funerary monuments dated back to Etruscan time in Tuscany. Originally it would be completely painted in surface: now only traces of red and white paint are still present. This work was carried out in order to study the painting techniques. Samples scraped off from the paint surface were studied by using various analytical techniques in order to characterise both the pigments and the binding media. As regards the preparation layers and the substrate, optical microscopy with polarized light and X-ray diffraction were used (XRD). The pigments characterisation was performed by means scanning electron microscopy-energy dispersive X-ray spectrometry (EDX), XRD, and Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy (FTIR). The characterisation have led to the identification of red ochre, calcium carbonate and silica respectively for red and white colours. The colours were applied on a silica layer in the frieze, and on plaster finish in the pronaos walls and on the column surface. In order to characterise the organic binders, the samples were analysed by two procedures based on a gas chromatography–mass spectrometry (GC-MS) and on pyrolysis coupled with gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (PY-GC-MS), which allow proteinaceous and lipid materials determination in the sample. The presence of egg and of animal glue was suggested as painting media.
KEY-WORD: Ildebranda Tomb, Etruscan painting techniques, red ochre, calcium carbonate, silica, XRD, FTIR, EDX, GC-MS, Py-GC-MS.
U. Bartolucci, M.P. Colombini, L. Dei, F. Giambi
PROBLEMI DI CONSERVAZIONE DELLE PITTURE MURALI DEL CORTILE DI MICHELOZZO IN PALAZZO VECCHIO (FI).
The cycle of the wall paintings in the Cortile di Michelozzo at Palazzo Vecchio in Firenze represents the views of some cities of Austria, Bohemia, Hungary and Tyrol, commissioned in the 1565 by Cosimo de' Medici for the wedding between his son Francesco and Giovanna d’Austria. The views have been object of various restorations and, in the half of the past century, the detachment of many views was performed. Currently, most of the views have serious problems of conservation and their fruition is compromised .
Starting from the analysis of the past restoration works, this paper describes the most important results obtained through analysis in infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR) and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) on the views of the city of Possonia (now Bratislava), which was not detached. The analytical procedures adopted allowed to assess the presence of gypsum spread over the whole pictorial surface and mainly the presence of egg as the proteinaceous binder employed in this pictorial work. The formation of gypsum is related with the air pollution as well as with the high amount of water affecting the walls.
Key-Word: wall paintings, gas chromatography-mass spectrometry, infrared spectroscopy, proteinaceous binders, lipidic materials, gypsum, sulphatization.
P. Cornale, L. Maritan, C. Mazzoli, R. Piovesan
AFFRESCO E MEZZOFRESCO: STUDIO SPERIMENTALE E PROCEDURE ANALITICHE PER LA CARATTERIZZAZIONE DELLE TECNICHE PITTORICHE.
ABSTRACT: The recognition of the painting technique adopted by an artist is often a matter of debate in studies for the characterization, restoration and conservation of mural paintings. Here we present the results of an experimental study and contribute to the definition of criteria and analytical procedures for the recognition of fresco and mezzo fresco painting techniques. Two sets of fifteen coloured strips were painted using different traditional pigments, including lime white, according to both the fresco and mezzo fresco painting techniques. These samples were then prepared in polished think sections and analysed by optical microscopy for micro-stratigraphy, by SEM for obtaining BSE images and elemental maps, and by FT-IR. The comparison of micro-stratigraphic sequences and distribution of chemical elements in each of the two sets of samples displayed systematic differences between the fresco and mezzo fresco painting techniques, independently on the pigment used, suggesting objective distinctive criteria and standardized operational procedures.
KEY-WORDS: Mural painting, fresco, mezzo fresco, pigment, micro-stratigraphic analysis, SEM analysis, FT-IR.
H. Brecoulaki, E. Fiorin, P. A. Vigato
THE PAINTING MATERIALS USED OF THE FUNERARY KLINAI OF THE TOMB 1 FROM AMPHIPOLIS AND A SARCOPHAGUS FROM ANCIENT TRAGILOS, EASTERN MACEDONIA.
The funerary klinai (couch) of Tomb 1 from Amphipolis and a stone sarcophagus from ancient Tragilo, painted by Macedonian craftsmen of the early Hellenistic period, were investigated by optical and SEM-EDS microscopy, X-Ray Powder Diffraction (XRPD) and micro-FT-IR spectroscopy. This study allowed the identification of the original materials, the state of conservation and painting technique, as well as the detection of the synthetic materials used as coatings or consolidants in the past restoration. The original organic binders of the paintings and the modern synthetic materials have been identified by micro FT-IR spectroscopy.
Egg and animal glue temperas have been detected on the couch of Amphipolis, together with polymers such as polydimethylsiloxane and polyvinylacetate, related to modern restoration products. The presence of paratacamite has to be underlined because it is a green pigment never been identified in ancient Greek palette.
The Tragilo’s sarcophagus has found to be painted with lime and the presence of Paraloid B72 is related to recent conservation treatments.
Keyword: painting technique, micro FT-IR spectroscopy, paratacamite, polydimethylsiloxane, polyvinylacetate, Paraloid B72.
S. Della Torre, V. Pracchi, E.Rosina, G. Suardi
L’INTERVENTO DI CONSERVAZIONE ALL’ORATORIO DI SANTA MARIA PRESSO SAN PAOLO A CANTU’.
The paper shows the results of restoration on the frescoes of Santa Maria in Cantù, in the perspective of the whole knowledge process, from analysis to intervention; the conclusions include some indications for the present debate on the link between the different subjects and correlated professional roles.
KEY WORD Cantù, frescoes, restoration, preservation
M. Sánchez, M. Ponti, I. Clavel
IL MURALE CONTEMPORANEO E IL SUO RESTAURO NELLA COMUNITÁ VALENZIANA: NUOVI CONCETTI E NUOVI MATERIALI.
This study is a reflection about the conservation and restoration processes of the contemporary mural in Spain, concretely in Comunidad Valenciana. So we analyze the main differences between the contemporary murals and the traditional mural, as much from the conceptual point of view: new speeches, new ideas and new expositions, like technological: new techniques and new constituent materials. Through this analysis new aspects will be shown to consider at the time of raising an intervention methodology that it will have to be specific for this type of works. The conclusions are the first result of a project of I+D+I financed by the Consellería de Cultura, Tecnología y Ciencia for the cataloguing and technical study of the contemporary murals of the city of Valencia. This project has as purpose for the knowledge and the diffusion of a concrete part of the contemporary artistic patrimony, that is not possible to be show in gallery. The final mission is the generation of a technical data base that serves like source of documentation to take a maintenance of these wall paintings and to confront future interventions.
KEY-WORD: Mural painting, contemporany art, restoration, conservation
A. Cervantes Reyes, R. Sandoval Parra, A. Villalobos Pérez
EL BARRIO DE LA VENTILLA, TEOTIHUACAN: RIFLESSIONI SU L’IMPORTANZA DELLE CONSERVAZIONE DELLE PITTURE MURALI.
Teotihuacan was the most important urban center of the classic prehispanic period. As a large variety of prehispanic cities was entirely covered with wall paintings. The major problems for the conservation of this cultural manifestation go from the damage caused by the enviroment to the political arguments that have refrain the development of the conservation of the archeological site. The group building known as “La Ventilla” has particularities such as the “glifos frescoes” painted on the floor, that could be the only example of a written representation at the city. From here the importance of its study and conservation.
KEY-WORD: Teotihuacan, conservazione, pittura murale, la Ventilla
C. Baracchini, P. Lanari, P. Ponticelli, R. Parenti, A. Vecchi
SICAR: UN SISTEMA PER LA DOCUMENTAZIONE GEOREFERENZIATA IN RETE.
SICaR is an internet-based system, developed with Open Source software, for the management of the records gathered during restoration activities (preliminary analyses related with the nature of the artwork to be restored and with its state of conservation as well as with the documentation of the work in progress) which can be mapped and geo-referenced to an ‘iconometric’ model of the artwork (e.g., a rectified photography)
The system is completely accessible via web both to consult and to insert data; it thus can be used directly in the restoration yards or in laboratories through wireless connection (GPRS, Bluetooth, etc.).
The data managed by SICaR may be consulted through a transversal access: cross-referenced queries may be done and statistics obtained. They belong to two main categories -- alphanumeric (e.g. general, historical, artistic, building materials, stratigraphical data etc., also stored in “external” archives) and geometric ones.
The possibility of recording the data down to deeper and deeper observations has stimulated to reconsider the criteria of recording nature of surfaces and construction techniques (based on experiences coming from building archaeology), thus letting the data management ‘go up and down’ through the whole set of observations.
KEYWORDS: web based documentation system, GIS 2D, GPRS applications, Open Source, restoration analysis and intervention, SVG and XML applications, building archaeology.
EFFETTI DI SUPERFICIE, OVVERO LA BELLEZZA DELLA MATERIA.
E. Roffia, R. Bugini, D. Biondelli, L. Folli
LE PITTURE MURALI DELLA VILLA ROMANA DETTA “LE GROTTE DI CATULLO” (SIRMIONE).
The archaeological site of Sirmione lies on a narrow peninsula of the lake Garda (Northern Italy) and includes important remains of a roman villa called “Grotte di Catullo”, dating back to the first Imperiai Age. The excavations unearthed a great numbers of rooms, halls, arcades, etc. The rooms were covered by wall paintings today completely fallen and broken into fragments. The scientific analyses involved samples from the painted plasters for a complete characterization. The analyses, carried out by optical and electron microscopy, classified the different layers of the plasters. All layers have a binder made by calcium carbonate (lime) and the outer ones have a filler made by calcite crystals or by calcareous sand. The painted layers are always very thin (about 0,15 mm) with different colours: blue, red and orange, green, yellow, black. The pigments detected are: Egyptian blue, cinnabar and red ochre, red lead, green eatrh, yellow ochre, lamp black. Painted layers with cinnabar pigment always lay on red ochre layer.
KEY-WORD Wall painting, pigment, plaster, Roman
L. Appolonia, D. Vaudan
L’ANALISI DELLE POLICROMIE MURALI UN CONFRONTO FRA METODI E RISULTATI
heritage study. Some experiences made from the daily application of non destructive and traditional analysis of wall’s painting show the applications useful for the different needs. Portable X ray fluorescence or Raman instrument are used in different wall painting in Aosta. The results and the consideration with the laboratory analysis are discussed to show that is difficult, until now, to obtain all the answer with this portable instruments, also if they are used together. The cross section is the most complete instrument for the polychrome study, also if the non destructive analysis can reduce the samples number and the damage on the wall painting surface.
Non destructive analysis, portable XRF, portable Raman, Cross Section
V. Fassina, M. Mazza, A. Naccari
INDAGINI PRELIMINARI SULLA TECNICA PITTORICA E SULLO STATO DI CONSERVAZIONE DEI DIPINTI MURALI DELLA CHIESA DELLA DIFESA DI VIGO DI CADORE (BL).
Preliminarily to the conservation work a survey on the painted surface of the church of Madonna della Difesa in Vigo di Cadore, located in Belluno province, was carried out. This church is included in the group of buildings built by Nicolò Ruopel who used a Gothic alpine language. The aim of the survey was mainly focussed on the knowledge of the executive pictorial techniques as well as the decay problems occurring on the painted surface.
The results obtained pointed out that some areas were on fresco techniques, while some others have some secco finishing as well as some different ground preparation were found. As regards deterioration problems there are mainly missing of secco finishing and a widespread chromatic alteration of lead-based pigments which presented an advanced browning and blackening.
KEY-WORD: Gothic churches alpine area, pictorial technique, mural painting decay, lead-based compound darkening
G. M. Costantini, C. Fiori
L’INDAGINE CRITICO-STRATIGRAFICA (ICS) DELLE SUPERFICI MURALI STORICHE.
More than precious artefacts, mural paintings represent the natural finishing of the Italian historic architecture, on both internal and external surfaces. They are not simply “historic” paintings, read and considered as isolated “pictures”, but all this enormous artistic heritage, present in many forms, has always constituted the real image of the Italian architecture. In spite to the common opinion, in the historic architectonic culture it don’t exist either isolated frescoes or “tinting”, “coloured braids”, etc.; all these entities, as well as the material-chromatic choices related only to the “manner”, are products of a wrong education, due to a society that have forgotten its own building and pictorial-decorative tradition. On this basis, the inevitable first action in the conservation of the mural painting heritage, as of the historical architecture in general, must be the stratigraphic study and, when opportune, the possible unveiling of surface finishing belonging to the historic architecture. According to this logic, a study and an experimental activity started more than twenty years ago that have allowed to establish a technical-scientific and operative methodology of critic-stratigraphic investigation. This is an easily utilizable system, either because doesn’t present operative difficulties or because doesn’t require sophisticated devices and high costs. It is suitable to individuate, classify and document the finishing of architectural surfaces for planning their recovering and conservation.
Key words: mural painting, architectural finishing, critic-sratigraphic investigation, documentation
S. Bandera, A.R. Nicola, V. Parodi, F. Frezzato, E. Monni
GLI AFFRESCHI TRECENTESCHI DELL’ABBAZIA DI CHIARAVALLE MILANESE: IL PRIMO MAESTRO A CONFRONTO CON IL CANTIERE GIOTTESCO, RESTAURO IN CORSO.
Restoration of paintings always represents an opportunity, sometimes unrepeatable, for an in-depth study of a work of art under many points of view, that is to say documentary, historical, artistic, technical and scientific ones. Along with the restoration work of the wall paintings by the First Master and of those relevant to the Giottesque cycle, which is being currently carried on in the Church of the Chiaravalle Abbey, a long preliminary analysis work and a careful survey of all the original technical data, such as giornate, direct and indirect incisings, snapped cord lines, a secco retouchings, gilded and punched parts, were carried out. Cross sections analysis has been a very helpful way to investigate the painting technique, allowing to characterize pigments and binding media, but also providing precious informations for the restoration work. The art historical research with the help of technical and scientific investigations gives more and more evidence of the technical and materic differences between the two stages of decoration, but above of all, it allows to discriminate different painters operating in the same giottesque cycle, thus leading to understand the complex art yard organization.
KEY – WORDS Chiaravalle, Stefano Fiorentino, Giotto, fresco, art yard, restoration, technique, analysis, pigments.
A. Canziani, L. Napoleone
LA MATERIA E L’IMMAGINE DELLA TRASFORMAZIONE NELLA CONSERVAZIONE DELLE FACCIATE DIPINTE.
The contribution deals with the aesthetic consequences of any intervention on architecture's skin, moving from the conservation problems of decorated architecture. In the last years Genova has been subjected to a large transformation of its own urban image through the restoration of many painted facades. The will of “restore the town appearance” searching for “a pleasant result” has lead to deviations from conservative criteria, in spite of the use of analysis to support the interventions. Starting from this experience the contribution works out reflections upon the relationships between image and materia, upon refusal and acceptance of the decay signs, upon the relationships between time and the “image of transformation”, upon the impact of fragments aesthetic on image reassembling.
Keywords: aesthetic - Genova - image - legibility - painted facades - signs of time
L. Barbanti, D. Jeanmonod, E. Nannini, R. Segattini
LE SUPERFICI SVELATE DI VILLA MYLIUS A SESTO SAN GIOVANNI.
The interior spaces of Villa Mylius in Sesto San Giovanni (Milano), of eighteenth-century origin, at the moment are object of a conservation and reuse site, in particular the two halls at first level, distinguished by painted drawered ceilings and walls with painted decorations.
The painted surfaces and the underlying plasters have been object of careful chemical and mineralogical analysis, that have permitted to define even the composition of a black layer of material dabbed on the entire a long side perimeter walls beneath plasters, identified like mixture with tar pitch. Important, as well, the identification of the “artificial overseas” colour, introduced in the first half of nineteenth-century, that allow to date the decoration. During the building site are been respected all the indications of the executive project, providing for conservation of surfaces and discloses decorations, through classic conservation cycles (cleaning, consolidation, gap treatment, slit plaster), making specific attention to all lacks that wiring adaptations have caused in the past century.
KEY WORDS: conservation, painted surfaces, diagnostic science, tar pitch, “artificial overseas” colour, building site, cleaning, consolidation, gap treatment, slit plaster.
S. Boi, E. Franceschi, G. Luciano, B. Merlano
BERNARDO STROZZI IN PALAZZO LOMELLINO DI STRADA NUOVA: DIPINTI MURALI DEL PRIMO PIANO NOBILE.
ABSTRACT: This work investigates the technique used by the painter Bernardo Strozzi (b. 1581, Genova, d. 1644, Venezia) in the first quarter of the XVII century in artworks discovered in Palazzo Lomellino in via Nuova in Genoa. The analyses performed highlight the uncommon techniques used by the artist not usually employed for wall paintings.
KEY-WORD: Pigments characterisation, SEM-EDS, micro-Raman
M. Citterio, E. Giani
I DIPINTI MURALI DEL SITO ARCHEOLOGICO DI CASTELLAMMARE DI STABIA: MONITORAGGIO MICROCLIMATICO PER LO STUDIO DI NUOVE COPERTURE DI PROTEZIONE.
The Archaeological site of Villa Arianna in Castellammare di Stabia is characterized by a big variety of shelters installed in different ages and adopting different materials and technologies for each area. The microclimate monitoring started with the aim of building new shelters more suitable for conservative purposes of wall Roman paintings. The monitoring plant was installed in some rooms of the Villa, characterized by various shelters types. The monitoring of enclosures protected by different types of shelters allowed a comparison of effects that shelters themselves produce on the state of conservation of mural paintings. The monitoring campaign was carried out together with the study of biological and chemical alterations inducted on “ad hoc” made samples, realized in different material (stones and plastered bricks) and protected and non protected by specific treatments.
The study was finalized with the design of a new shelter based on the information coming from microclimate monitoring data. For this purpose simulation models were adopted. These models allowed to predict the internal microclimate conditions based on the knowledge of external climate.
Key-word: Archaeological shelter; microclimate; roman paintings, simulation.
M. T. Giannotta, G. Quarta
CHARACTERIZATION OF PLASTERS AND PAINTINGS IN A MESSAPIAN TOMB IN MESAGNE (PROVINCE OF BRINDISI-SOUTHERN ITALY).
In this paper, the results of an interdisciplinary study carried out by CNR-IBAM on a pre-Roman painted tomb (Tomb 97/6) discovered in Mesagne, are presented. The walls of the funerary chamber bear painted decorations in white, red, yellow, black and green-blueish colours. Analyses of the constituent materials and the techniques employed, as well as the state of conservation of the plasters and paintings in the tomb were carried out. To this end, samples were taken of the painted layers, of the plasters and of the stone support. The samples were subjected to chemical analyses, including ESEM observations with EDS microanalyses, DRX and mineralogical-petrographical analyses of thin and cross sections. The study was completed by representative mapping of the decay.
KEY-WORD: pre-Roman painted tomb, mapping of decay, plasters and pigments characterization.
N. Gurgone, P. Iazurlo, U. Santamaria, M. G. Castellano
PROBLEMATICHE CONSERVATIVE DEI MURALES CONTEMPORANEI ACRILICO–VINILICI.
The second half of the twentieth century marks a breaking point in the wide and complex scenario of the Italian mural painting with the shift from traditional technical paintings in favour of innovative procedures that better suit the new products now available in the market.
The renewed expressive demand of the artists, such as the need to quickly paint large surfaces with easy to find, low-cost products often not even peculiar to the artistic traditional environment, give births to masterpieces which have been realised with non-conventional techniques, easy to decay. The prevailing use of vinilic-acrylic paint and colours recently formulated on new supports, often made of cement, along with conditions of prolonged unfavourable climatic exposure, outline new questions for the conservation and restoring of such masterpieces.
In this paper the investigation on painted surfaces protection is analysed, taking into consideration the practical use of water- repellent products (silane) mixed with UV stabilizers. Samples of concrete were produced, on top of which polychromic coats were applied with acrylic media. Such samples have been treated with two silanic preservatives with and without the adding of UV stabilizers. After this, the samples were made artificially older by exposing them in a climatic chamber. The use of the colorimetric system CIE La*b* made it possible to verify the different behaviours of the applied protective blends and assess their effectiveness.
KEY-WORDS: mural paintings, contemporary art, acrylic - vinyilic paint, protective coating, UV stabilizer, murales.
A. Jornet, M. Zanolari, A. Romer
PITTURA MURALE: RELAZIONE TRA TECNICA PITTORICA E PROPRIETÀ.
Lime mortars have traditionally been used both in wall construction and as protective or decorative renderings. Although the lime based construction materials have been displaced by modern materials for more than a century, in the last decades there has been a revival in the use of lime, and the interest for a better knowledge of the lime technology is continuously growing. The results presented here are part of an on going project intended as a contribution to the better knowledge mentioned above. During the centuries different wall painting techniques: lime wash, tempera, or oil, were used along with the traditional fresco technique. On the other side, presence of moisture and water movements are among the main causes of wall painting deterioration. In this work are presented the results of a laboratory investigation conducted in order to establish what kind of relationship exists between painting technique and the behaviour related to water of the system render and paint layer. The results obtained show that, while not much differences related to the painting technique exist as far as water vapour diffusion is concerned, water suction changes quite drastically in function of the paint technique used. These differences result in the presence of areas with different moisture contents and with different dimensional variations within the wall paint. Cycles of wet-dry will eventually produce cracking, loss of adhesion or efflorescences.
KEY WORDS: wall painting, fresco, lime wash, tempera, oil, moisture and water transfer
M.C. Liparota, M. Bobba, E. Marengo, E. Robotti
MONITORING OF A FRESCO CONSERVATION STATE UNDER UV ACCELERATED AGEING BY MICRO-RAMAN SPECTROSCOPY AND MULTIVARIATE CONTROL CHARTS.
In this work Micro-Raman spectroscopy and multivariate control charts are applied for monitoring the state of conservation of a sample fresco-simulating during an accelerated ageing process (exposure to UV light) in order to evaluate the effects of the applied treatment on its surface. The principles of Statistical Process Control (SPC) have been applied to study the state of conservation of the sample considered as an industrial process, and then monitored with multivariate control charts. The fresco surface was characterised by Raman spectra that were analysed by Principal Component Analysis (PCA). The relevant Principal Components (PCs) were used for constructing multivariate Shewhart and Cumulative Sum (CUSUM) control charts. SMART (Simultaneous Scores Monitoring And Residuals Tracking) charts were also investigated. These tools allowed to quickly individuate the presence of some modification occurring on the sample surface related to the accelerated ageing process applied.
KEY-WORDS: Micro-Raman Spectroscopy; Principal Component Analysis; Multivariate control charts.
M. Mauro, A. Macherelli, L. Dei, C. Alessi, F. Iacopini
INDAGINI PER LA CARATTERIZZAZIONE DI PIGMENTI ED ALTRI MATERIALI UTILIZZATI PER LA REALIZZAZIONE DELLE PITTURE MURALI DEL REFETTORIO DELL’ARCHICENOBIO DELL’ABBAZIA DI MONTE OLIVETO MAGGIORE.
In the frame of the conservation workshop at the Archicenobio of the Abbazia di Monte Oliveto Maggiore several physicochemical investigations have been carried on samples from the wall painting Storie dell’Antico Testamento by Fra’ Paolo Novelli da Alfedena. The analyses were aimed to the characterisation of the conservation state and to the determination of the original materials, mainly the coloured pigments. The scientific results have been compared to the data achieved during the non-invasive analysis of the painting and the preliminary tests. Moreover, during the conservation treatments the experimental results have been also compared to the data from the historical and archive recognition, allowing the building of a synoptical chart showing the perfect correspondence between the scientific results and the documents stating the materials purchase when the painting was produced. This study demonstrated that a really multidisciplinary approach can contribute to solve complex and polyhedric questions typical of a conservation/restoration workshop.
Keywords: wall paintings, ancient pigments, physicochemical investigations, archive data.
M. Bini, A. Felici, M.R. Lanfranchi, P.I. Mariotti, R. Olmi, S. Priori, C. Riminesi
DIAGNOSTICA IN SITU DI DIPINTI MURALI MEDIANTE SPETTROSCOPIA DIELETTRICA A MICROONDE NON INVASIVA.
This paper presents a non-invasive microwave method for detecting and measuring the moisture content on frescoes, woods, bricks or tiles but also on bare walls. The method performs a sub-surface measurement on the material with an investigated depth up to 3cm. The measurement system – including the resonant dielectric sensor, the measuring front-end, and the control and elaboration unit – has been tested on several brick and plaster samples conditioned at various moisture levels and containing different salt concentrations. Some on-site investigations, devoted to monitoring the seasonal changes of frescoes, are currently under development in the Cappella della Maddalena at the Bargello Museum in Firenze. The preliminary results prove the usefulness of the method as a diagnostic tool for investigating the frescoes status.
KEY-WORD: microwave diagnostics, non-invasive monitoring, dielectric probe, moisture content, salt content.
S. Della Torre, E. Rosina, V. Pracchi, G. Suardi, N. Ludwig, V. Redaelli, A. Sansonetti, R. Negretti
LE INDAGINI MULTISPETTRALI PER IL RICONOSCIMENTO TELEMETRICO DEGLI INTERVENTI DI RESTAURO NELLE PITTURE MURALI.
In the arena of NDT applied to Cultural Heritage, the investigation techniques (that are based on images analysis) have a prominent role, above all in the assessment for emergency intervention.
In fact, requirements of early detection find a complete respondence in the characteristics of such phase and can address further steps and further uses of diagnosis in a following traditional restoration. Procedures and instruments are applied on the study case of Oratorio di S. Caterina e S. Ambrogio in Solaro (Northern Italy). During the rescue intervention of consolidation of XIV-XIX centuries frescoes, repointing and sealing materials were found as spread spots on the whole surfaces. The critical conditions of microclimate caused the condensation of humidity on these areas, and consequently the worst damage of the sourronding zones of frescos. The integration of diagnostic techniques allowed to locate these areas, at a distance, without scaffolding. Results allowed the operators to identify the key factor of damage, to map the risk areas, and to support the choice of restaurators regarding the removal of restoration products and integrations.
Key words: emergency intervention, image analysis, IRT, UV, porosimetry, mineralogical tests
P. Salonia, L. Valdarnini, A. Negri
L’ESEMPIO DEL CICLO DI AFFRESCHI ALTO-MEDIOEVALI DELLA COLLEGIATA DI SANT’ ORSO IN AOSTA: TECNOLOGIE GIS A SUPPORTO DEL PROGETTO DI CONSERVAZIONE.
The work is focused on the experimentation of the ARKIS system, based on GIS technology, for the management of the documentation about the othonian fresco cycle of the Collegiate Church of Sant'Orso in Aosta.
Priority objective has been to come, to the conservative aim of the pictorial apparatus, to a critical utilization of the acquired data, optimising integration and analysis processes and furnishing, in such way, a valid tool of decisional and planning support to the renovators work.
ARKIS configures itself as an easy tool of management for the restoration operations, in accordance with the double instance of investigation and of monitoring: it’s a tool of cognitive investigation in the phase of pre-intervention, where the renovator will be able to make interactive interrogations on different themes, extracting data, for example, on the decay alteration, on the colorimetric parameters and on the historical-critical investigations. After the correct recording in the system of the restoration operations, it becomes even monitoring tool on the behaviour during the time of the materials and then of the effectiveness of the intervention operations themselves.
KEY-WORD:Cultural Heritage, Mural Painting Conservation, Photogrammetry, GIS, Monitoring.
M. Bartolini, A. Bertelli De Angelis, G. Di Gaetano, M.C. Gaetani, U. Santamaria
VALUTAZIONE DELL’EFFICACIA DI ALCUNI PRODOTTI IDROREPELLENTI PER LA PROTEZIONE DI INTONACI GRAFFITI E DIPINTI CONSERVATI ALL’APERTO.
an experimental study focused on evaluating the qualification and the functionality of some water repellent products for outdoor mural painting and graffiti protection of, has been conducted through the study of their chemical and physical characteristics and their durability. Five protectives belonging to several chemical classes, already tested on stone, have been examined. Products, applied on samples paint in fresco and after an ageing period, have been evaluated in terms of durability through the measure of water repellency, of colour and of rugosity. Another goal of the research was to evaluate the correlation between water repellent products and biological growth also testing the inibition effect and possible interferences overlapping a specific biocide (Algophase). Results showed that four of five products have good durability of their characteristics and that the application of the protective increases the biological deposition on samples. The overlap of the biocide on the protective does not cause significant changes of water repellency and of color but in one case biocide didn’t fulfil his functionality.
KEY-WORDS: water repellent agents, siloxanes, fluorurated acrylic resins, biocide.
S. Albero, C. Conti, M.L. Santarelli
DOMUS AUREA: LO STUDIO DELL’AMBIENTE PER LA CONSERVAZIONE DELLE SUPERFICI.
The Domus Aurea, commissioned by Nero between 64 and 68 A.D., was undoubtedly the most extensive of the imperial residences in Rome; it spread from the Palatine to the Equilino Hill and included pavilions, woods with animals, small temples, porticos and an artificial lake. Of all this enormous complex only one of the pavilions remains, that of the Oppio Hill: the part of it which has been excavated to date measures about 250 × 60 m. It rose from a natural slope of the Oppio Hill and had two levels. The ground level (today underground) with its large covered halls, once richly decorated, has almost intact wall structures with considerable remains of pictorial decorations. It owes its preservation to the fact that it was included in the foundations of the thermae of the Emperor Trajan and was consequently buried. The status of hypogeum and its extentions had created particular conditions for its conservation. The Soprintendenza per i Beni Archeologici of Rome had always expressed attention for the condition of the mural paintings inside the Domus and, since the reopening to the public for the Giubileum 2000 till today, had developed different strategies to control the various conservative problems. In collaboration with CISTeC, three main categories of technical problems were faced: a) structural and safety analysis and works; b) control of the internal environmental conditions; c) elimination of water infiltration.
Keyword: Hypogeum, Mural Paintings, Environmental Conservation, Domus Aurea
G. Serafini, A. Tucci
UN’ESPERIENZA DIAGNOSTICA SUI DECORI DEL TEMPIO DI SAN NICOLÒ A CARPI.
C. Spagnol, S.Caniglia
I DIPINTI DI GALILEO CHINI NELLA CUPOLA DEL PADIGLIONE ITALIA ALLA BIENNALE DI VENEZIA.
The still unfinished restoration of Galileo Chini’s decorative work on the cupola of the hall of the Italian Pavillion, undertaken in 1909 for the Venice Biennale, shows how difficult it is for the experts to preserve this type of contemporary mural painting.
The experimental techniques used by the artist in the preparation of the materials and the tempera used, plus the general neglect which the whole room suffered, has meant that restoration projects have had to focus not only on the artistic elements but also on the environmental and structural problems.
KEY-WORD: oil tempera, pictorial experimentalism, Art Nouveau, Galileo Chini.
F. Fiorino, A. Torsello
L’APPARIZIONE DI CRISTO E TRA S. LUCIA E SANT’ANTONIO ABATE DI LORENZO LUZZO NELLA SAGRESTIA DEL CONVENTO DI OGNISSANTI A FELTRE: UNA PROPOSTA DI CONOSCENZA PROPEDEUTICA AL PROGETTO DELLE ANALISI.
Lo scopo della sperimentazione è l’acquisizione e messa in luce di informazioni sullo stato di conservazione dell’affresco e delle sue caratteristiche, utilizzando nuove tecnologie di rilievo ed elaborazione dati, associate alle tradizionali tecniche di indagine. Uno dei risultati prodotti è la mappatura del quadro fessurativo e delle discontinuità superficiali, oltre ad un modello virtuale della superficie affrescata.
F. A.Cuteri, S. Aragona
AFFRESCHI DI ETÀ MEDIEVALE IN CALABRIA. CARATTERIZZAZIONE DEI SUPPORTI E PRIME VALUTAZIONI SULLO STATO DI CONSERVAZIONE.
The research has regarded some of the most important locations of the medieval times situated in two areas in the south of Calabria. Such buildings, today just ruins, still treasure works of important pictorial evidence, even if seriously damaged. Together with a macroscopic analysis of the deterioration, a systematic sampling of the pictorial works has been carried out, in order to spot a possible mutual relation between the good state of preservation and the composition. The analytic studies have also brought to light some analogies that can be found among the frescos of the different churches in certain chronological spheres.
Key-Word: Affreschi, bizantini, archeometria, argilliti, Calabria, degrado, castelli.
M. Faustini Fustini
IL RESTAURO DELLA DECORAZIONE DI DONATO CRETI NEL QUADRILOGGIATO SUPERIORE DELL’ARCHIGINNASIO.
Le tre arcate restaurate al piano superiore del quadriloggiato dell’Archiginnasio, sede dell’antica Università di Bologna, oggi biblioteca, riguardano una decorazione con la tecnica dell’olio su muro di Donato Creti. Il progetto metodologico prevedeva una ricerca d’archivio e una campionatura preliminare con indagini di laboratorio. Dalle indagini stratigrafiche è risultato che il dipinto è stato composto per stesure pittoriche successive dallo stesso autore in quanto l’imprimitura a olio probabilmente aveva reso la superficie troppo liscia, facendo “cadere” gli strati di colore. Inoltre recenti restauri del 1960, con pulitura a “impacchi” aveva creato una “quadrettatura” nelle zone di sovrapposizione della carta. Operativamente il restauro ha cercato di ricreare una base di colore a “integrazione” con tempere, cercando di ricucire e riportare l’opera nella sua interezza, consolidando con diverse iniezioni di caseato di calce l’intonachino all’intonaco, mentre lo strato pittorico è stato fissato come si usa nei dipinti su tavola, con una soluzione di Primal Ac 33.
E Cornacchia, C. Fiori, M. Vandini, G. Pettinato, R. Valmori, A. Guerrini, S. Facchini
L’INTERVENTO DI RESTAURO DELLA CUPOLA AFFRESCATA NELLA CHIESA DI S. GIOVANNI BATTISTA IN RAVENNA.
The re-building of the church of San Giovanni Battista in Ravenna was completed in 1683, following the project of Pietro Grossi. The decoration of the dome was executed by Francesco Ferrari. The painting simulates a wide two-storey marble balustrade, traversed by twelve pillars made by volutes and overlapping cornices. Eight of the twelve pillars are combined in couples in a way that they embrace four big medallions with the representations of Saints. The operations for the conservative intervention on the dome were preceded by a technical-scientific study. In the executive project, the first interventions concerns the load-bearing structures in the extrados of the dome. The following phase regards the conservative restoration intervention of the frescos. The analytical investigation regards: the characterisation of the painted and the plaster layers, their composition and their state of conservation, the localisation of detachments and the evaluation of their gravity, the recognition of the alteration products in the decorated surface, the digital elaboration of the decay maps, putting in evidence lacunas, creeps, detachment areas, previous interventions.
Key-words: mural paintings, restoration, consolidation, cleaning, integration, X-Ray Diffractometry (XRD), X-Ray Fluorescence (XRF)
IL PUZZLE DELLA DOMUS DEL BRACCIALE D’ORO RECUPERO DI UN CAPOLAVORO DOPO 2000 ANNI DI OBLIO.
To speak of a 2000-year-long oblivion when referring to a Pompeian fresco sounds rather commonplace. Not in this case.
The fresco in question didn't share the same fate as the other artifacts in town houses on that day in 79 AD, because the owners of the elegant House of the Golden Bracelet had already had it buried. It had been broken in thousands of fragments and used to cover a drain in the garden. The probable reason for this inglorious fate was the ruinous earthquake of 62 AD, a dramatic foreshadowing of the final catastrophe. Here, as elsewhere in Pompeii, the earthquake caused great destruction.
When the painting was discovered, archaeologists and restorers were confronted with a true puzzle composed of thousands of pieces whose technical and artistic quality was so high that it was evident even in this fragmentary condition. It took long and painstaking work and the cooperation
of several different professional skills to rescue large portions of the fresco.
This is the story of the rescue.
KEY-WORD: Pompeii, House of the Golden Bracelet, fragmentary fresco.
P. Baraldi, P. Bensi, V. Bocci, A. Campodonico, C. Gardella, E. Jacopino, L. G. Magnani, M. R. Montiani, D. Pittaluga, R. Ricci, F. Simonetti
CONOSCENZA E PROPOSTA DI CONSERVAZIONE DELLE SUPERFICI MURALI DECORATE INTERNE ED ESTERNE DI VILLA ANSALDO IN LOCALITÀ ALLOU, RECCO (GE). UN’INIZIATIVA PILOTA PER IL RECUPERO DELL’EDILIZIA RURALE STORICA.
Abstract. Villa Ansaldo is an interesting 19th century example of Ligurian holiday mansion, standing in a rural estate in the village of “Allou” (Alloro, laurel), in a picturesque natural landscape around Recco, in Provincia di Genova.
A team has been formed to proceed in the restoration of this bulding, that is now abandoned; main targets are external and internal painted surfaces, realized with local colours and pigments, providing for its armonious insertion in the landscape; the residencial floor has still painted vaults with armonious images of romantic taste and other glimpses of decoration are present in the building.
The restoration will follow precise standard of reversibility, respecting original materials and techniques, using local and natural materials. For this purpose the team has wider-range plans, including both the creation of a data base of local working knowledge and the constitution of an historical building techniques school, with the involvement of Regione Liguria.
Key-words : 19th, decoration, restoration, local and natural materials
M. G. Vaccai, S. Luppichini, S. Penoni, C. Todaro
UN AFFRESCO STACCATO DI SCUOLA GIOTTESCA NEL MUSEO NAZIONALE DEL BARGELLO. NOTE TECNICHE E NUOVE IPOTESI SULLE VICENDE CONSERVATIVE E LA COLLOCAZIONE ORIGINARIA.
The relation exposes some technical observations made about a fresco representing the Madonna in throne with Child, placed in the Michelangelo hall of the Bargello National Museum, favourable to the formulation of a new hypothesis regarding its origin and conservative history. The fresco, by the School of Giotto, painted in the same years and from the same skilled workers of the cycle of the Maddalena Chapel, was subject to an transfer operation with the “stacco a massello” technique that cancelled the links with the place for which it was originally painted.
KEY-WORD: wall painting, Madonna whit Child, School of Giotto, Bargello National Museum, restoration, stacco a ‘massello’
P. Parodi, S. Vassallo
IL RESTAURO DI VILLA IMPERIALE DI TERRALBA A GENOVA: LE PROBLEMATICHE AFFRONTATE NEL RESTAURO DEL COMPLESSO CICLO DI AFFRESCHI CINQUECENTESCHI.
The " Villa Imperiale di Terralba" was made at the end of the XV th century. Between the half of the 16th century and the 17th century were realised most of stucco and frescos decorations, by Luca Cambiaso, Calvi brothers and Andrea Ansaldo. The recent restoration has recovered the wall paint of the "piano nobile". A lot of paint was discovered under several whitewashing. The central great hall with the "Ratto delle Sabine" painted by Luca Cambiaso is supported by a complicated wooden structure conventionally called "capanno". The consolidation of Capanno was very difficult for the state of deterioration of constitutive materials. Outside the villa the restoration has conserved the original plasters of the front, while the decorationes have been re-propose with lime-color frescoes.
KEY-WORD: Luca Cambiaso, Genova, XVI century, Villa Imperiale, Restoration.
C. Pastor, G. Peirano
GENUA PICTA RESTAURATA – PALAZZI DEI ROLLI: INTERVENTI DI VALORIZZAZIONE DELLE FACCIATE DEL PATRIMONIO STORICO E ARTISTICO.
The job of analysis and filing of painted by fresco façades in the historical centre of Genoa has been the subject, in 1982, of the Convention “Genua Picta “ and has found its own completion, more or less twenty years later, by the restoration achievement of about fifty prestigious buildings called “Palazzi dei Rolli”. The art’s work carried out on the façades of these buildings, long time ago doomed to host Official Visitors, set up the concrete target for the complex restoration’s project of the historical centre of Genoa giving the chance to lighting masterpieces that were been concealed by carelessness.that project, realized on 2004 when Genoa has been “The European Capital of Culture” considered all different aspects concerning any kinds of intervention and it’s contemporarily.The themes considered concerns as the projectuality and the operability that we can retrace to:The methodology used conforming the documentation of a project with a minimum knowledge about looks of materials and their deterioration, regular inspections to check the state of conservation of materials and deepest knowledge analysis, valuation methods for restoration chosen between the record of case of typologies as: 1) façades painted with figures partially or totally entire, 2) façades painted with architectural orders integrally preserved or recoverable by traces, 3) complexes façades with stucco works, fresco painted and with stony material, 4) façades with many and different historical and painted stratifications,the complete filing of all documents from the start to the evolution until the end of the intervention or restoration to built a database that allow to monitor, during the time, all materials and techniques employed.
Key-Word Genoa, facades, fresco painted, restoration.
IL RESTAURO DELLE COLORITURE ORIGINALI DEI PROSPETTI DEI PADIGLIONI ORNAMENTALI DELLA MERIDIANA E DELL’UCCELLIERA DI VILLA BORGHESE A ROMA
Wonder results have been achieved in the recent restoration of the decorated façades of the pavilions of both the buildings called “the Meridiana” and “the Aviary” located into the private gardens of the enclosed type, (the hortus conclusus of the middle Ages) of the Villa Borghese in Rome.
To be noted: a) The properties of the materials used and the mastery of the technique of the plasters (stuccoes) and the original paintings applied to the surferes of fresh plastic (fresco). b) The architectonic style of the façades of the above mentioned pavilions the unitary configuration of the private gardens, standing at the sides of the Borghese Gallery, which were conceived as open roof inner rooms.
Regarding the first point, it has been ascertained that the plasters used, with high relief overhangs levelled by many layers of tints due to the repair work of the past revealed the mastery of a refined as well excellent workmanship for having been executed by using mortars of lime and pozzolana instead of “roman plaster” together with marble dust.
Regarding the second point, the unity of the decorative and chromatic treatments of the surfaces gave evidence that the façades of the pavilions were conceived not only as outdoor works of art, but also to be separated from the other buildings for beconing annexes of each single private garden.
KEY-WORD: Plasters (Stuccoes), Frescoes paintings, Private gardens, Aviary, Meridiana pavilion, Decorated wall.
E. Rosina, E. Daffra, S. Giaggioli, G. Suardi
IL CONSOLIDAMENTO D’URGENZA SUI CICLI PITTORICI DELLA BASILICA DI S. GIORGIO IN LEMINE AD ALMENNO S. SALVATORE (BG): UN INTERVENTO DI MANUTENZIONI OGGI PER RESTAURARE DOMANI CIÒ CHE ALTRIMENTI POTREBBE ANDARE IRREPARABILMENTE PERDUTO.
Nowadays maintenance works parietal pictorial cycles, in intact conditions, can undergo restoration works carried out over a short or a long period of time. Preliminary investigations relevant to the restoration planned by the Provincia di Bergamo on the tear in one of the frescos representing the Last Supper, dating back to the 13th century, revealed, that the above mentioned fresco was interested by aesthetic alterations of the restorations, but the other pictorial cycles were in a condition of extreme decay. Under the patronage of the Superintendence for the artistic and historical patrimony of Milan together with the synergy of all the people involved, the restoration was given up in favour of an urgent consolidation work on the pictorial cycles and of a diagnosis on the reasons for its deterioration for which the allotted funds were used. The results provided the starting point to write an intervention proposal regarding an environmental restoration, and delivered parameters and threshold-values, which will assure the best possible conservation of the frescos also in consideration of a future reuse.
KEY-WORD: maintenance-pictoral cycles-urgent consolidation-diagnosis-conservation-
M. Sánchez, P. Roig, M. Ponti, M. Palumbo, M A. Zalbidea, G. Gómez, I. Clavel
ANALISI E RIPERCUSSIONI SUI RESTAURI NEGLI ANNI
With this communication we want to expose one of the most spectacular examples of the repercussion of a restoration badly made on cultural patrimony and the importance that the work turns out to interdiscipline to establish the methodology of performance adapted to each concrete work. In particular is analyzed the present situation of the frescoes that Antonio Palomino, a king Carlos II`s baroque artist, painted at the end of century XVII, in the barred vault and presbiterio of the church of Santos Juanes in Valencia. These paint suffered in 1936, during the Spanish civil war, the effects of a serious fire, and later, between 1958 and 1963, a partial restoration that affects three fourth parts of the vault and that has been more detrimental for the painting than the fire. The concrete effects of this restoration have been widely analyzed through a Project of I+D+I, renewed in three occasions by the Spanish Ministry and directed by the university professor Dra. Pilar Roig. The work team that has developed this investigation belongs to the Polytechnical University of Valencia and is formed by groups of different branches related to the conservation and restoration of patrimony, in which conservators, restaurators, architects, chemistries, biologists, engineers, historians and photographers are integrated.
KEY-WORD: spanish baroque mural painting, conservation, restoration, strappo, interdisciplinary
P. Gandi, C. Scavone, V. Piccioli
LA CONSERVAZIONE DEI DIPINTI MURALI DEL PARCO ARCHEOLOGICO STORICO NATURALE DELLA CHIESE RUPESTRI DEL MATERANO.
The rock churches are the archaeological part of the rich heritage of the Park. Preserving the rock churches is almost complex due to the specific characteristics of the churches and of the pictures inside. The rock churches are characterized by a camouflage insertion in a remarkable landscaped, that represents an emblematic case of the murgiano-carsico landscape. The respect of the relationship between rock churches and landscape pretends interventions without modifying the rock architecture. The goal of any intervention is to safe in one time the fruition of the church, the landscape- environmental impact, the wall painting. This ambitious goal will be achieved only after a long knowledge distance.
The wall paintings are characterised by a deep stratifications painting layers, each layer corresponds to an old restorations or is a sign of the human presence inside the church.
The intervention plan has to understand the mechanisms and the cause of degradation in order to achieve effectiveness in the results of restoration and to preserve from a negative impact in the perception of the specific values of the park. The planning of the restoration is determined by the 109/94 law but assumes original aspects because of the links between all the said problems.
Key- Word Rock churches, humanizations, landscape, stratifications, humidity, painting layers, environment, knowledge.
G. Vago, P. Zanolini, M. Albasi, E. Boldetti, F. Bonacci
GLI AFFRESCHI DEL CASTELLO VISCONTEO DI VOGHERA: PROGETTI ED INTERVENTI.
ABSTRACT: The restoration at “Castello Visconteo” in Voghera, carried out by “Soprintendenza ai B.A.P.” of Milan, has brought to light the frescoes dated back to the Renaissance period. In the “Galleria dei Feudi” – nord wing – the restoration of frescoes has been carried out by neutral reintegration of figurative “lacune”: the “time test” gave the possibility to evaluate the techniques and methodologies used. In the halls of the east wing – “Sala delle Muse” with frescoes by Bartolomeo Suardi also known as Bramantino, and “Sala del Loggiato”- works are going on and different project options are evaluated together with the co-operation of some architects and engineers from the “Scuola di Specializzazione in Restauro dei Monumenti” of Milan in order to take into consideration the possible reintegration of “lacune”, to conserve the palimpsest and to discuss the economic conditions. There is now to face the complicated problem of the integration of lacune. The contribution of Dott. Bugini from ICVBC-CNR “Gino Bozza” enabled to deepen the stratigraphic researches with laboratory analysis that brought new historic knowledge on the castle and on the intervention of restoration: stratifications, building techniques, materials. Parallel studies are being made for the assignment and the attribution of the restoration project of new frescoes that have been discovered – a “Madonna con Bambino” and a “ducale” figure.
KEY-WORDS: Bramantino – Voghera – castle - frescoes - restoration
F. Tittarelli, M. G. Pauri, G. Moriconi, O. Favoni
VALUTAZIONE DI TRATTAMENTI IDROFOBIZZANTI IN MASSA DI INTONACI CEMENTIZI PER LA PREVENZIONE DI GRAFFITI E PITTURE MURALI.
The graffiti painted on the walls of town buildings, whatever their historical-architectonic value, could be faced with surface protective treatments of the rendering mortars such as those based on silanes and siloxanes able to prevent the penetration of aqueous solutions and organic solvents into the pores of the mortar. However, the effectiveness of the surface treatments with time depends on their penetration depth, their resistance to atmospheric agents and the presence of cracks. Therefore, in this work hydrophobic agents have been introduced in the mortar mixture directly, in order to make both the surface and the whole bulk hydrophobic. The results in terms of mechanical behaviour, capillary water absorption, and colorimetric tests showed that the 0.25% dosage of hydrophobic admixture by cement weight doesn’t change the aesthetic and mechanical properties of the rendering mortar by significantly reducing the paint penetration and making its removal easier.
KEY-WORD: Rendering mortars, Graffiti, Hydrophobic Agents, Water Absorption, Paint penetration.
R. Quaresima, R. Volpe, H. Corpora, G. Taglieri
L’ORATORIO DI S. PELLEGRINO A BOMINACO (L’AQUILA): STATO DELLE CONOSCENZE, PROBLEMI APERTI E POSSIBILI SOLUZIONI.
In the present paper the state of kwnoledge on the chntry of St. Pellegrino at Bominaco (L’Aquila) is reported. Several environmental data are reported as well as the description of the tecquines used for the realization of the scenes of the paints. Furthermore is discussed the influence of restoration works undertaken in 1937 and presented the results obtained by means of GC-MS on the consolidation products of the pittoric film used. In this case was used animal glue and its deterioration, due to a high relative humidity and to vapour impermeability, produced the blackening of the product and the detachment of the pittoric films.
At least, several suggestions and open problems, concerning the roof, the water infiltrations through the external walls, the control of the visitors, the collection and the downflow of the raining water and the evaluation of the structural behaviour of the building are proposed for the conservation of the whole chantry.
KEY-WORDS Bominaco, L’Aquila, St. Pellegrino, chantry, frescoes, animal glue, salt crystallization, humidity, freeze-thawing, condensation.
R. Quaresima, D. Ambrosini, R. Di Biase, G. Pasqualoni, D. Paletti
PROGETTAZIONE E REALIZZAZIONE DI UN MODELLO “INTELLIGENTE” FINALIZZATO ALLA CONSERVAZIONE DELLE PITTURE MURALI.
In the paper the design and the realization of a model of a mural paint realized with the buonfresco technique is reported. The model was realized in order to investigate the effectiveness of several diagnostic techniques, in particular IR thermography, as non-destructive-testing method and understanding the thermoigrometric behaviour of the artfact. For this reason a 60x60 cm2 fresco was made following the technique of Cennini and adopting the tradional materials (lime, sand, natural pigments). The supporting wall consisted of pieces of old bricks and stones on which were applied the arriccio, the intonaco, the intonachino and the pittoric film. Within the fresco several typical static and dynamic damages were inserted (detachment of the plaster and of the painting film, cracks, flaking and conservative treatments, presence of humidity, salt efflorescences).
Finally, several temperature sensors (AD590) were inserted in different areas and layers of the fresco structure to obtain real time monitoring of the heat transfer within the model. Temperature was detected through a LabView © application. With its static and dynamic defects the model designed can be considered “intelligent” because able to evolve during time in a controlled and differentiated way. The complete description of the model and preliminary experimental results in th paper are given.
KEY-WORDS: Fresco, mural paint, thermoigrometric behaviour, non-destructive-testing, infrared thermography, temperature sensors, detachment of the plaster, salt efflorescences, cracks, flaking.
D. Capitanio, R. Laviano, A. Menga, N. Meo-Evoli, F. Vona, F. Vurro
INTONACI E PITTURE MURALI DELL’IPOGEO DI SAN MATTEO ALL’ARENA, MONOPOLI (BARI).
San Matteo all’Arena church is an hypogean located in the territory of Monopoli (Bari province). The hypogean lies at a depth of about six meters and it consists of a nearly rectangular, two apses room, excavated in the calcarenite. The inner walls of the hypogeum are decorated by numerous paintings belonging to 12th – 13th century. In this work the plasters, paintings and efflorescences have been studied with mineralogical and chemical procedures in order to better understand the nature of the mural paintings of Apulian hypogeums. Sampling of materials was carried out in 2003, during the restoration of the church. Materials have been investigated using the following analytical techniques: polarized light microscopy on thin sections, Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM-EDS) and X-ray powder diffraction (PXRD). The binder of plasters and paintings is calcite, aggregates are made by quartz with minor contents of feldspars and clay minerals. Sometimes iron oxides, gypsum, phosphates and organic matter also occur. The red pigments have been identified as minium and hematite, the yellow ochre is related to iron oxides mixed with clay minerals and, once, to a garnet (almandine). No clear evidence results with regard to blue colour: sometimes it is related to lazurite. Efflorescences are made by gypsum. A mural painting on dry plaster is hypothesized.
KEY-WORD: Hypogeum, Mural painting, Monopoli, Apulia, Italy
E. Mariani, C. Pagani, R. Bugini, D. Bindelli, P. Naj
CARATTERI DELLE PITTURE MURALI ROMANE IN LOMBARDIA COMPENDIO DI DATI ANALITICI SU MALTE E PIGMENTI.
ABSTRACT: A great number of samples from mural painting was analysed in order to identify the composition of the plaster, the pigments and the painting technique. Samples come from different sites of Brescia, from “domus” in Milan, from the remains of Bedriacum (near Cremona) and from the theater building of Cividate Camuno (Valle Camonica – Brescia). The time period ranges from 2nd century BC to 4th century AD. The plaster are made using lime and an artificially crushed aggregate (dolomite, calcite, brick); the pigments are red and yellow ochre (red, pink and purple; yellow); cinnabar (red); green earth and Egyptian blue (green); Egyptian blue (blue); lime white (white); lamp black (black). Ochres always lay on the plaster; green earth and Egyptian blue are almost always laid on another coat made by ochre.
KEY-WORD: mural painting, pigment, plaster, Roman
M. Valentini, R. Negretti
IL MONITORAGGIO DELLE CONDIZIONI DI CONSERVAZIONE DEGLI AFFRESCHI PRESSO IL BATTISTERO DELLA COLLEGIATA DI CASTIGLIONE OLONA (VA).
In addition to a first, two months longer, air conditions monitoring, Fi.T.Be.C. laboratory has carried out a series of measurements to evaluate microclimate conditions of conservation of frescoes of the Battistero in Castiglione Olona (the frescoes has been mounted on panels in 1960). The monitoring project has scheduled the continual recording of the temperature and the relative humidity of the air and the surface temperatures of the walls and the frescoes panels; water and salts content of the walls were also measured. The position of probes has been defined by a first mapping of air and surface temperatures made with portable instrumentation and a termographic camera.
The results of the measurements shows that the greater dangers for the frescoes are soluble salts and bad environmental conditions, marked by high values and temporal variability of relative humidity of the internal air.
KEY-WORD: microclimate, conservation conditions, water content, soluble salts, decay, termography, frescoes
M. L. Amadori, F. Ferrucci, L. Festa, M. Monte
PROBLEMI DI CONSERVAZIONE DELLE PITTURE MURALI NELLE CHIESE RUPESTRI DI MATERA – IL CASO DELLA MADONNA DELLE TRE PORTE.
The complex of rock-cut churches in Matera, recognized as a property of the whole mankind by the UNESCO since 1993, forms an unrepeatable unicum in our historical and artistical heritage. The state of conservation of the rock-cut churches is rather compromised because of the combined action of different factors (anthropicals, biologicals, chemicals and physicals).
An interesting case study deals with the frescos of the XII and XVI centuries, placed in the sanctuary of Madonna delle Tre Porte, known as Grotta delle Cento Croci because of the several crosses engraved in the crypt.
An inspection carried out during the restoration intervention, showed that the frescoed surfaces were interested by a colonization of biodeteriogens. The panting layers were almost covered with white incrustations and they showed decohesion, pulverization and detaching phenomena. In that occasion some samples have been taken in order to analyse the incrustations and to identify the biological agents. The diffractometric analysis carried out on the whitish incrustations samples showed calcium oxalates composition. Further cultural analysis on the samples highlighted the presence of seven fungi species. After one month of incubation, one of them, Aspergillus terreus, determinated calcium oxalates formation.
KEY-WORDS: Rock-cut church, mural paintings, fungi, oxalates, XRD, FT-IR
M. Nicola, G. L. Nicola
DIPINTI MURALI SOVRAPPOSTI: UN ESEMPIO DI SALVATAGGIO CON TECNICHE DI STRAPPO DI UNA FASE OTTOCENTESCA A CALCE STESA SU AFFRESCHI DI EPOCA PRECEDENTE NEL CHIOSTRO DI B. BERNARDINO A CHIVASSO.
The cycle of frescos of the cloister of S. Bernardino in Chivasso dating in part XVII and in part XVIII century was partially repainted in XIX century with lime decorations of landscapes and cities’ views probably by the local painter known as Nicola Doria.
These decorations were layered directly over the older frescos and partially over large patches of plaster added during structural modifications of the monument.
The decorations, bonded to events historically dated, were fully recovered with a modification and optimization of the traditional strappo technique making possible the discovering and the reading of the original decorative pattern.
KEY-WORD: separation, overpainting, frescos, strappo technique, Chivasso, Doria
IL RESTAURO DELLA FACCIATA DIPINTA DI PALAZZO TROYER A SERRAVALLE DI VITTORIO VENETO, UN CASO DI “DOPPIA AUTENTICITÀ”.
The façade of palazzo Troyer is composed of two different buildings dating back to 1469 and 1913. The Twentieth Century façade is a perfect replica of the late gothic Quattrocento.
The modern construction imitates the carved stone elements for decorative purposes and employs a different technique to integrate the plaster and the 15th century monochromatic fresco painting.
Chemical and physical testing was conducted and revealed the composition of the building materials, the traces of gold gilding remaining on the capitals as well as the presence of the rich stone polychromy.
A detailed mineralogical and petro-physical characterization was carried out to determine the different lithotypes and the composition of the various carbon deposits of a dark encrustation. The façade is susceptible to very specific conditions of decay due to the composite materials, techniques and chronology of conservation treatment.
This paper also presents the problem of double authenticity and its significance in the interpretation of the loss of entire areas of monochromatic painting in terms of partial reconstruction. It shows a new approach and attitude to the aesthetic definition of the painted façade.
Key-words: façade, plastered surface, mortar render, mural painting, fresco, efflorescence, Serravalle.
LA CASA DEI PITTORI AL LAVORO REGIO IX, INSULA 12 DAL TRAUMA DEL FURTO AL RECUPERO CONSERVATIVO.
During the night of April 4th 2003 some frescoes located in the “insula dei Casti Amanti” were stolen and damaged by unknown thieves. In particolar the thieves removed two pictures from the “Casa dei pittori al lavoro” – insula 12, Regio IX of Pompei excavation site – dated between 45 and 79 a.C.
Besides the theft of the pictures, the attempt to detach the frescoes has caused some irreparable damages to surrounding pictures which actually show huge losses and pulverization on the plastering.
The stolen items were recovered a few days later by the State police.This event gave us an unexpected chance to restore the damaged frescoes and,most of all,it gave us a starting point to undertake a thorough study of the pictures of this Domus which still lays partially unexcavated from the ashes of the Vesuvio.
Key-words: insula dei casti amanti, damaged frescoes.
IL LARARIO DELLA VILLA 6 DI TERZINO.DISTACCO, INTERVENTI, MATERIALI, MUSEALIZZAZIONE.
ABSTRACT: the excavations started in 1981 have partially uncovered three rural villas in the site Boccia a Mauro of Terzigno, about six kilometres north of Pompeii. They were named Villa 1, Villa 2 and Villa 6. During the years 1993, 1996 and 1997 the exploration was completed and the complex plan of the Villa 6 almost totally unburied. This essay is about the excavation of the building and the complex restoration of the Larario of the Villa (amb.11), a six meters long fresco with a small niche and a pillared terracotta altar.
The starting point will be the state of conservation of the painting during the excavation, with particular reference to the difficulties caused to the detaching operation by a damp environment. The transferring of the painting on its new support and the evaluation of its historical and aesthetic aspects in view of its presentation in the exibition will be the following points of the script.
The diagnostic and the analysis of the pigments, and a confrontation with analogues data from several Pompeii paintings, will be an important argument of the essay.
KEY-WORD: Pompeii, Terzigno, Larario, fresco.
R. Camerata Scovazzo, A. Villa, R. Mandina, C. Gratziu, A. Moscato, F. Ferrucci, M. Sebastianelli
IL RESTAURO DI DUE DIPINTI ROMANI DA SOLUNTO CONSERVATI NEL MUSEO “A. SALINAS” (PA).
Restoration has individuated a series of stratigraphical situations of extreme interest that could indicate a hitherto unknown Roman painting technique with cinnabar as a background to polychromy. The works, discovered during the digs carried out in a Roman domus in Solunto, between 1868 and 1869. The paintings in question belong to a series of five panels kept in the regional archaeological museum of Palermo.
KEY-WORD: Restoration, roman painting, “frescoes”, cinabre, Solunto archaeological site.
V. Bellusci, P. Di Nola
“PRINCÌPI” DELLA TECNICA DELL’ILLUSTRAZIONE NELLA SCELTA DELLA TEMPERA A SECCO: RISULTATI CONOSCITIVI DESUNTI DAL RESTAURO DI UN INEDITO CICLO DI DECORAZIONI PARIETALI DI DUILIO CAMBELLOTTI A COLONNA (ROMA).
The results of a very complex restoration on mural wash paintings have given, thanks to application of philological exactitude based on artist’s technical capacity, the masterpiece as material work of art as well as something that can finally give back its emotional vigour lost in time and inexperienced interventions in the past.
During the restoration, overcome initial fears due to a very difficult technique to protect and to recover, we soon found out that the great technical ability shown by Cambellotti during his art-work in Colonna, would have helped our “devotional” restoration work.
GLI AFFRESCHI DI VILLA IMPERIALE DI TERRALBA A GENOVA. L'USO DELLA BIACCA, SUOI PROCESSI DI DETERIORAMENTO E APPLICAZIONE DELLE METODOLOGIE DI RICONVERSIONE.
This contribution shows the degradation causes of white lead (biacca) found on the Luca Cambiaso's mural paintings of the hall ceiling at first floor Villa Imperiale in Terralba (Genoa), and on the paintings fragments brought to light in the adjoining hall.
Chemical-sectional survey and date base observation with SEM have identified a transformation of the white lead (lead carbonate basic or “biacca”) into a brown coloured lead (lead dioxide PbO2). Thanks to Prof.Matteini's former outstanding researches about "biacca" reconversion, we were able to perform this method successfully.
KEY-WORD: oxidation white lead ; Methods of reconverting white lead
P. I. Mariotti
GUGLIELMO DI PIETRO DE MARCILLAT E LE VOLTE DIPINTE NEL DUOMO DI AREZZO:LA TECNICA PITTORICA ATTRAVERSO I RISULTATI DEL RESTAURO.
Marcillat’s wall paintings in the Cathedral of Arezzo were created between 1521 and 1528. They emerge as an early and deliberate imitation of the Sistine ceiling, as an uninvestigated example of the diffusion of the art of Papal Rome before the Sack of 1527. By the time that Marcillat embarked on the paintings of the first three nave vaults, of the seven lunettes below the nave vault, of the first bay of the North aisle of the Cathedral in Arezzo, he was an established artist who had worked for both Julius II and Leo X and he became famous as unequalled painter of glass-painting ( “insuperato pittore di vetri”). He performed the painting of the large cycle without any experience in the technique of mural painting and making up a particular, personal and original painting technique. The restoration and scientific studies prove that Marcillat used the classic method for fresco, but he also used binder and tempera painting with organic materials to complete the Cathedral’s cycle.
V. Abbate, F. Italiano, F. Palla, L. Pellegrino, G. Rizzo
CRONACA DI UN INTERVENTO. IL RESTAURO DI DUE DIPINTI MURALI STACCATI A MASSELLO.
LE PITTURE DEL CASALE DEL GIANNOTTO DI VILLA SACCHETTI E DEL CASALE DI VILLA CARPEGNA A ROMA: IL PROGETTO D’INTERVENTO, LE SCOPERTE IN CORSO D’OPERA, I RAPPORTI CON IL CONTESTO.
The architectonical quality of the Casale del Giannotto in the Villa Sacchetti was discovered during the last restoration, wich put in light decorations of the XVIII century in the sitting room, with neoclassical compositions, and of the XIX century in two rooms. The choice passed during the restoration was of complete all the gaps, for the serial character of the subjects. The comprehensive imagine of the built was got back. Instead the outside surfaces of the Casale of Villa Carpegna was reveled only small parties of decorations of the beginning of the XX century, on floreal style, very interesting for the continuity with the near Casino Nobile. It was so recovered the original colour of the plaster and the little decorations preserved, whitout complete anything.
Villa Sacchetti-Casale del Giannotto -Villa Carpegna-pittura floreale
G. Botticelli, S. Botticelli, A. Felici
GLI AFFRESCHI DI GIULIO ROMANO NEL PALAZZO DI MANTOVA. LA TECNICA PITTORICA, STATO DI CONSERVAZIONE, INTERVENTO DI RESTAURO.
S. Cancellieri, A. Tonelli
IL TEMPIETTO DI SAN GIACOMO A VICOVARO DISEGNO DI RILIEVO E DISEGNO DI PROGETTO: UN ARCHIVIO MULTIMEDIALE PER IL XXI° CONVEGNO SCIENZA E BENI CULTURALI 2005 SULLE PITTURE MURALI.
To Vicovaro, a small medioeval village in the province of Rome, is build “The small Temple of Saint Giacomo”, a precious construction erected in the XV century, but whose inside was completed only in the XVIII century. In the year 2001, The Monuments and Fine Arts Office began the restoration of the inside and, thanks to the preliminary analyses, discovered in an unforeseeable way all tempera decorations hidden into the inside of the ancient structure.
The complexity of this restoration has demanded the finding of a series of indispensable data for the definition of the restoration in qualitative way beyond that in economic way; with the Computer Aided Design (CAD) it has been possible to collect data, to elaborate the modifications that have been taken place in work course and to simulate the restoration virtually: it’s obvious, in the case of the “The small Temple of Saint Giacomo”, the interconnection between the "design of relief" and the "design of plan" and the strait existing tie between the science of the architectonic relief and the computer science. The works on the “The small Temple of Saint Giacomo” has become, in synthesis, a small multimedia archives that could be put in net, through ipermediale navigation, in the regional and national artistic historical patrimony network, but the separation in the logical organization of data and the mechanisms of use and the deficiency of the economic resources are some of the elements that make to still today remain the resources of the Monuments and Fine Arts Office to a level of potentialities not yet expressed.
KEY-WORD: “Restoration”, "Architectonic relief", CAD, Temple, “XV century”, “Wall tempera decorations”
G. Cavallo, S. Napoli
I DIPINTI DEL SOFFITTO DELL’APPARTAMENTO NOBILE DI GILLA GIA’ ANTONIETTI (MORCHINO, TICINO). DEGRADO E PROBLEMATICHE CONSERVATIVE.
The noble apartment of the Villa già Antonietti at Morchino (Ticino, Switzerland) contains two horizontals ceilings decorated with tempera by Bartolomeo Solari in 1854. The support of the painted surface was realized with common magnesium lime containing alluvial sands, upon which the tempera was realized.
The principal pathology of the degradation observed are put in relation to infiltration of rainwater across the roof and the walls with the formation of hydrosoluble salts, consisting mainly of magnesium sulphates that have caused the loss of cohesion and powdering of the support and painted film, resulting in gaps, some with a depth of 10 mm.
The picture decoration in crossed by fissures of notable size caused by problems of stability on the eastern prospect.
The problems studied for the conservation of ceilings are in relation to the elimination of soluble salts and support consolidation.
KEY-WORD: Ticino, support degradation, salts, conservation.
L. de Bonetti G.M. Piacenti, S. Invernizzi, R. Madorno, A. Bertelli
LA CHIESA DI S. GIACOMO A GRIGNO IN VALSUGANA (TN). L’INTERVENTO DI RESTAURO DELL’APPARATO DECORATIVO AFFRESCATO.
The S.Giacomo church of Grigno, was involve from various constructive phases, the most significant are datable between the XV and XVIII / XIX century: it stand in Valsugana and therefore raises near the Veneto region, and for varied aspects it was suffered the cultural influence. The project and the fulfilment of restoration of the fresco surfaces concerns the figures and the internal garnish, datable between the XV, XVI e XVIII century, most ancient they result unfortunately fragmentary and in condition of precarious preservation, even to reason of the peculiar designations of use, (store but also cinema to the beginnings of the latter postwar period) that the sacred building has meet in the course of his story. The suggested treatment (in working phase) includes the restoration of the old working steps of internal frescos, particularly, in the hall: a Last Judgment (XV century) the images of the pious Margherita and Agatha, a Madonna with Bambino, the Giovanni, Baptist, Sebastiano and Lucia Saints and in the presbytery the ascension of the Vergine with angels of the XVIII century.
Key words: The S.Giacomo church of Grigno/ restoration of the fresco surfaces/ XV and XVIII / XIX century
NON SU MURO MA PER MURO. RI-CONOSCERLI PER CONSERVARLI E RESTAURARLI.
Brought as decorative elements from XVIIII century, during the years of Carlo Felice’s kingdom (1824-1831) and Maria Cristina’s widowhood (1831-1849), they have a particularly and appreciated spreading in every Savoy residence, marking both common places and galleries and parade-rooms. Their brilliant colours, their very rich iconographic repertoire, their expert technique of superimposing and even the light effects make them one of the most astonishing “inventions” of the decorative equipment of XIX century. They are the papiers-peints, worked on paper in the laboratory by the artisans, but destined to the role and the aspect of wall pictures. Hand-worked, sometimes on thin printed textures, until now they have been considered as a charming but hybrid substitutive of temperas and frescoes. The problems concerning their knowledge, cataloguing, recovery and documentation, if detached, and those concerning the conservation and restoration, if in situ, have been collected in the large survey set up in the Royal Palace of Turin, thanks to the restoration works following the fire of 1997. This survey has no pretensions to be complete. However, it can show some directions of research and be a field of new knowledge about the court art, and of the restoration yards promoted in this field.
Key-words: Residences Savoy, painted-paper tapestries, glues, fire, cataloguing.
P. Astrua, C. E. Spantigatti
L’EVOLUZIONE DI UN PROGETTO NELL’EMERGENZA: PALAZZO REALE DI TORINO E IL RESTAURO DI APPARATI DECORATIVI DOPO L’INCENDIO E I DANNI DELLO SPEGNIMENTO. TRE CASI ESEMPLARI.
A. Moropoulou, A. Bakolas, K. Efthimiou, E. Aggelakopoulou, E.T. Delegou, N. Minos
CHARACTERIZATION OF WALL PAINTINGS OF PRIVATE HOUSES OF DELOS ISLAND.
In this research the characterization of wall paintings of three private houses in Delos island (Hermes, Inopos B and Lake) was performed. For this purpose, the following analytical techniques were applied: fiber optic microscopy (FOM), gradation analysis, x-ray diffraction (XRD), thermal analysis (DTA/TG), infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR) and determination of total soluble salts and their qualitative identification.
The results indicate that the artisans applied various application techniques and materials for the production of the different stratums of wall paintings. Several inorganic pigments or mixture of them were utilized in order to obtain the red color. Hematite or hematite mixed with realgar or minimum were used.
KEYWORD: Delos, wall paintings, plasters, pigments, characterization, analysis
T. Perusini, C. Mancuso, E. Zendri, A. Gallone, G. Biscontin
IL MURALISMO ITALIANO DEGLI ANNI TRENTA: PROBLEMI TECNICI ED ANALITICI. UN EXCURSUS ATTRAVERSO L’ANALISI DI PITTURE DI SIRONI, DE CHIRICO, CAGLI, AFRO E SBISA’
During the thirties of XX century, in Italy (and also abroad) there was a renovate attention for mural painting. This fact is due both to the critical discussion on the unity of arts and to totalitarian regimes who granted architecture and mural painting new possibilities of expression for propagandistic reasons.
Although working in this common background, the artists excogitated various technical and formal solutions as the analysed case studies indicate. Even if the historical written sources pointed to favourite artistic techniques chosen by certain artistic movement (fresco painting for the group of Novecento, tempera painting for Primordio) the real situation is much more diversified as shown by the analytical data.
For the present research, historic-artistic studies and scientific data were combined together in order to better understand the execution technique of the examined paintings. The choice of analytic methodologies as EDS-SEM, FTIR, UV microspettrofluorimetric analysis allowed us to understand the superposition of pictorial layers and to identify pigments and binding media : in particular, the UV microspettrofluorimetric analysis enabled us to characterize the use of different binding media in the stratigrafic sequence, distinguishing the new mixtures tried by the artists who, by that time, were moved away from the traditional apprenticeship in the workshop and had not a direct knowledge of painting material furnished already made, but often adulterated, by the industry.
The data so gathered become an indispensable preliminary condition in the difficult task of contemporary mural painting preservation.
Key-words: Technique of Novecento italian mural-paintings; Mural paintings, Sironi, De Chirico, Afro, Cagli, Sbisà, cross sections; EDS-SEM; FT-IR; UV Microspectrofluorimetric analysis; multidisciplinary approach; conservation
E. Longega, G. Longega, I. Nardini, S. Riato, E. Zendri, G. Biscontin, P.Orsini
FRANCESCO HAYEZ ‘FRESCANTE’ ALLE PROCURATIE VECCHIE DI PIAZZA SAN MARCO.
The paper presents the preliminary analysis performed for samples taken from Apollo and Ganimede Room inside Procuratie Vecchie in Venice and ornamented by Francesco Hayez. The aim of this investigation is the knowledge of the artistic works of Francesco Hayez and the identification of his mural painting technique. The analysis used for this research were stereomicroscopy and electron scanning microscopy (SEM) with energy dispersive X-ray (EDX) analysis for studing the pigments employed and the technique while Fourier transform spectroscopy (FT-IR) has been used in the extracted solutions of the samples for identifying the nature of the organic compound. The results show that the conservation operations happened in the past have involved also the mural paintings where in many areas the retouchings replace the original artistic works.
Key Words:Hayez, Procuratie Vecchie, mural painting
G. Capponi, M. Coladonato, D. Esposito, S. Rissone, A. Roccardi, G. Torraca
PROGRAMMA DI ESPOSIZIONE E CONTROLLO DI SISTEMI DI COLORITURA SU CAMPIONI INTONACATI E TINTEGGIATI. FASE A: PRODOTTI INDUSTRIALI.
In the perspective of a more accurate preservation/conservation of plastered, coloured and painted architectural surfaces, it is of fundamental importance to consider the issue of the identification of technical practices allowing the most scrupulous preservation, while guaranteeing adequate durable results of the interventions and their actual feasibility. On the basis of the first essays carried out by the Polytechnic University in Torino firstly and by the Polytechnic University in Milan later and with the advice of Anvides, the “National Commission for the Conservation of the Surfaces of Architectural Monuments and their Preservation in their Urban and Environmental Settings”, set up in 1994 by the Ministry for Cultural Heritage and Activities, is carrying out testing with samples of plastered and coloured surfaces placed outdoors in Rome city centre, which provided interesting and distinctive information on the evaluation of the modalities and forms of the progress of deterioration and the historical-figurative values.
Key-words: ageing-test; paint work; plaster; preservation.
V. Corino, G. Mastrotisi, M. Poletti, A. Segimiro, S. Segimiro
LA SALA DEL TRONO A VERCELLI E I PILONI VOTIVI DI SUPERGA: DUE METODI DI INTERVENTO CONSERVATIVO A CONFRONTO.
Key-word: conservation, fresco, evidence, cultural heritage
G. Biscontin, G. Driussi, R. Mazzari, R. Nicoletti, E. Zendri
SVILUPPO DI POLIMERI ACRILICI IN DISPERSIONE ACQUOSA PER IL CONSOLIDAMENTO E LA RIAGGREGAZIONE SUPERFICIALE DI PITTURE MURALI.
The effectiveness of consolidation and re-aggregation treatments on mural painting depends on the depth penetration and on the distribution of the consolidant product in the substrate.
The paper presents the results of the first step of a research on aqueous acrylic dispersion with specific regard to the correlation between the particles dimension and distribution of products.
For this aim two new micro-dispersion are tested and compared with acrylic water dispersion traditionally used.
Key word: acrylic dispersion, consolidation, mural painting